PBS NewsHour full episode September 10, 2019

PBS NewsHour full episode September 10, 2019

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Captioning sponsored by NEWSHOUR PRODUCTIONS, LLC>>Woodruff: GOOD EVENING. I’M JUDY WOODRUFF. ON THE NEWSHOUR TONIGHT: TUMULT AT THE TOP. NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR JOHN BOLTON IS OUT AFTER CLASHING WITH THE PRESIDENT, THE THIRD PERSON TO LEAVE THAT CRITICAL POST IN THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION. THEN, BACK IN SESSION. JUST WEEKS BEFORE THE GOVERNMENT RUNS OUT OF MONEY, CONGRESS RETURNS TO WASHINGTON, AND THE DEBATES OVER GUNS AND IMPEACHMENT ARE AS FIERCE AS EVER. PLUS, RATS TO THE RESCUE. MANY CAMBODIANS LIVE IN CONSTANT DANGER OF LONG-BURIED LANDMINES, BUT NOW, SPECIALLY-TRAINED RODENTS ARE SNIFFING OUT THE EXPLOSIVES.>>RATS HAVE A NUMBER OF ADVANTAGES COMPARED TO HUMAN DE-MINERS, WHO MUST RELY ON METAL DETECTORS, WHEREAS THESE GUYS ARE TRAINED TO SNIFF OUT T.N.T., WHICH IS THE EXPLOSIVE IN MOST MINES.>>Woodruff: ALL THAT AND MORE, ON TONIGHT’S PBS NEWSHOUR.>>MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY: ♪ ♪ ♪>>ADVICE FOR LIFE. LIFE WELL-PLANNED. LEARN MORE AT raymondjames.com.>>YOU CAN DO THE THINGS YOU LIKE TO DO WITH A WIRELESS PLAN DESIGNED FOR YOU. WITH TALK, TEXT AND DATA. CONSUMER CELLULAR. LEARN MORE AT consumercellular.tv>>BNSF RAILWAY.>>AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS:>>THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU.>>Woodruff: EXIT JOHN BOLTON. THE WHITE HOUSE NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR IS OUT OF THAT JOB TONIGHT. PRESIDENT TRUMP MADE THE SURPRISE ANNOUNCEMENT EARLIER TODAY, THAT HE ASKED BOLTON TO LEAVE, IN THE LATEST TURN OF A LONG WASHINGTON CAREER. FOREIGN AFFAIRS CORRESPONDENT NICK SCHIFRIN BEGINS OUR COVERAGE.>>Schifrin: FOR DECADES, AMBASSADOR JOHN BOLTON HAS BEEN ONE OF WASHINGTON’S LEADING HAWKS.>>THE OVERTHROW OF SADDAM HUSSEIN, THAT MILITARY ACTION, WAS A RESOUNDING SUCCESS.>>Schifrin: FROM DEFENDING THE WAR IN IRAQ, TO THREATENING IRAN, BOLTON HAS LONG ADVOCATED THE U.S. MILITARY AS THE BEST WAY TO DETER ADVERSARIES, AND CHANGE COUNTRIES’ BEHAVIOR.>>THE IRANIAN REGIME MUST BE MADE AWARE, THAT IF IT CONTINUES DOWN THE PATH OF INTERNATIONAL ISOLATION, THERE WILL BE TANGIBLE AND PAINFUL CONSEQUENCES.>>Schifrin: AND TODAY, A CAREER OF CONTROVERSY CONTINUED, WHEN HE WAS FIRED BY TWEET. PRESIDENT TRUMP WROTE, “I INFORMED JOHN BOLTON LAST NIGHT THAT HIS SERVICES ARE NO LONGER NEEDED AT THE WHITE HOUSE. I DISAGREED STRONGLY WITH MANY OF HIS SUGGESTIONS.” JUST 12 MINUTES LATER, BOLTON SHOT BACK, “I OFFERED TO RESIGN LAST NIGHT, AND PRESIDENT TRUMP SAID, ‘LET’S TALK ABOUT IT TOMORROW.'” THAT TALK APPARENTLY NEVER HAPPENED. TODAY, THE PRESIDENT’S ALLIES SOUNDED CALM, AND DESCRIBED THE DISPUTE AS NORMAL WASHINGTON TURNOVER.>>I APPRECIATE WHAT JOHN HAS DONE FOR COUNTRY FOR A LONG TIME AND I THINK THE PRESIDENT WILL GET TO PICK A NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR HE HAS MORE CONFIDENCE IN.>>Schifrin: AT FIRST, BOLTON DID ENJOY THE PRESIDENT’S CONFIDENCE ON MAJOR FOREIGN POLICY ISSUES.>>I AM ANNOUNCING THAT THE U.S. IS PULLING OUT OF THE IRAN NUCELAR DEAL.>>Schifrin: TWO YEARS AGO, PRESIDENT TRUMP WITHDREW FROM THE IRAN NUCLEAR DEAL, WHICH FOR YEARS HAD BEEN ONE OF BOLTON’S TOP TARGETS.>>THE IRAN DEAL WAS IN FACT THE WORST DIPLOMATIC DEBACLE IN AMERICAN HISTORY.>>Schifrin: THEY ALSO AGREED ON LEAVING THE REAGAN-ERA INTERMEDIATE RANGE NUCLEAR FORCES, OR I.N.F., TREATY, WITH RUSSIA.>>I THINK PRESIDENT TRUMP SHOULD SAY TO VLADIMIR PUTIN, YOU EITHER BRING RUSSIA BACK INTO COMPLIANCE WITH THE I.N.F. TREATY, OR WE’RE GOING TO GET OUT OF THAT ONE TOO.>>Schifrin: BUT ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS TELL PBS NEWSHOUR, OVER TIME, BOLTON’S POSITIONS EMERGED AS TOO AGGRESSIVE TO A PRESIDENT WHO CAMPAIGNED ON ENDING WARS.>>WE WILL STOP RACING TO TOPPLE FOREIGN– AND YOU UNDERSTAND THIS– FOREIGN REGIMES THAT WE KNOW NOTHING ABOUT, THAT WE SHOULDN’T BE INVOLVED WITH.>>Schifrin: PRESIDENT TRUMP HAS NEGOTIATED WITH NORTH KOREAN LEADER KIM JONG-UN. BOLTON HAS LONG CALLED THAT KIND OF NEGOTIATION “APPEASEMENT.”>>Schifrin: ON VENEZUELA, THE ADMINISTRATION HAS LAUNCHED A PRESSURE CAMPAIGN TO REMOVE PRESIDENT NICOLAS MADURO. BUT, ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS TELL PBS NEWSHOUR, PRESIDENT TRUMP FELT BACKED INTO A CORNER AFTER BOLTON REPEATEDLY HINTED ABOUT MILITARY INTERVENTION.>>I WILL SAY AGAIN, AS THE PRESIDENT HAS SAID FROM THE OUTSET, AND THAT NICOLAS MADURO AND THOSE SUPPORTING HIM, PARTICULARLY THOSE WHO ARE NOT VENEZUELAN, SHOULD KNOW, IS, ALL OPTIONS ARE ON THE TABLE.>>Schifrin: JUST LAST WEEK, THE PRESIDENT AND HIS NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR DISAGREED OVER HOW TO END THE U.S.’ LONGEST WAR. THE U.S. HAS BEEN LEADING PEACE TALKS WITH THE TALIBAN, AND THE PRESIDENT WANTED TO TRY AND SEAL THE DEAL BY INVITING THE TALIBAN TO CAMP DAVID. BOLTON OPPOSED THAT. AND EVEN OVER IRAN, THE TWO DIVERGED. WHEN IRAN SHOT DOWN A U.S. DRONE IN JUNE, BOLTON PUSHED FOR A MILITARY RESPONSE. PRESIDENT TRUMP CALLED IT OFF AT THE LAST MINUTE.>>JOHN BOLTON’S PRIORITIES AND POLICIES JUST DON’T LINE UP WITH THE PRESIDENT.>>BOLTON WAS PRESIDENT TRUMP’S THIRD FULL-TIME NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR. STED ONLY FIVE WEEKS.RED GENERAN LIEUTENANT GENERAL H.R. McMASTER SERVED FOR JUST 13 MONTHS. BOLTON LASTED 17 MONTHS. BY THE END BOLTON CLASHED EVEN WITH THOSE WHO AGREED WITH HIM IDEALOGICALLY, INCLUDING SECRETARY OF STATE MIKE POMPEO.>>MANY TIMES AMBASSADOR BOLTON AND I DISAGREED, THAT’S TO BE SURE.>>A SENIOR OFFICIAL DESCRIBES MIKE POMPEO AS A TRUMP WHISPERER. HE HAS WON THIS INTERNAL FIGHT, BUT EVEN HE SAID TODAY THE ADMINISTRATION POLICY WOULDN’T CHANGE, JUDY, BECAUSE THIS ADMINISTRATION IS DOMINATED EVEN MORE BY ONE MAN, THE PRESIDENT. WELL, ALONG WITH NICK, WE ARE ALSO JOINED BY OUR WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT, YAMICHE ALCINDOR. SO YAMICHE, WE KNOW IT’S BEEN REPORTED JOHN BOLTON DID HAVE DIFFERENCES WITH THE PRESIDENT OVER TIME, BUT WHAT ULTIMATELY LED TO THIS DECISION BY YOUR REPORTING?>>SOURCES CLOSE TO THE PRESIDENT TELL ME THIS ULTIMATELY CAME DOWN TO THE PRESIDENT NOT SEEING JOHN BOLTON AS SOMEONE WHO WAS PUTTING ON A UNITED FRONT. THE PRESIDENT I’M TOLD LIKES PEOPLE THAT DISAGREE WITH HIM. HE LIKES TO HAVE SPIRITED DISCUSSIONS ABOUT NATIONAL SECURITY OR IMMIGRATION OR TRADE, AND HE’S OKAY WITH PEOPLE DISAGREEING WITH HIM, BUT SOURCES CLOSE TO THE PRESIDENT ESSENTIALLY TOLD ME THAT ONCE THE PRESIDENT MAKES A DECISION, THEN EVERYBODY NEEDS TO FALL IN LINE AND ESSENTIALLY JOHN BOLTON WAS NOT SEEN AS FALLING IN LINE. MOST RECENTLY THAT CAME ABOUT BECAUSE THERE WERE REPORTS THAT JOHN BOLTON AND VICE PRESIDENT MIKE PENCE DISAGREED WITH PRESIDENT TRUMP ON HIS DECISION TO TRY TO HOLD A MEETING WITH THE TALIBAN LEADERS AT CAMP DAVID. JOHN BOLTON THOUGHT IT WAS NOT A PLACE THAT TALIBAN LEADERS SHOULD COME, AND THAT BECAME PUBLIC, AND THE WHITE HOUSE AND PEOPLE AROUND THE PRESIDENT WERE CONCERNED THAT THERE WERE LEAKS AND THE LEAKS COMING OUT OF THE WHITE HOUSE AND THAT POSSIBLY JOHN BOLTON WAS THE SOURCE OF THAT. SO WHAT YOU SAW WAS A LONG TIME COMING WITH THE PRESIDENT BECOMING MORE AND MORE FRUSTRATED WITH JOHN BOLTON, BUT THIS REALLY CAME TO A HEAD TODAY.>>Woodruff: AND NICK, HOW MUCH DO WE KNOW ABOUT HOW MUCH IN THE END JOHN BOLTON AFFECTED POLICY AND AFFECTED THE PROCESS?>>I THINK THERE CAN BE NO DOUBT THAT HE AFFECTED POLICY. PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS TRIED TO KEEP IRAN INSIDE THE NUCLEAR DEAL. BOLTON HELPED PUSH THE PRESIDENT OUT OF THE IRAN DEAL. THE TWO AGREE ON THE I.N.F. TREATY. THEY EVEN AGREED ON THE USE OF TWITTER. BUT ULTIMATELY THE PRESIDENT DID NOT FOLLOW THROUGH ON BOLTON’S POLICIES. THE PRESIDENT CHOSE NOT TO STRIKE IRAN. THE PRESIDENT CHOSE NOT TO USE THE MILITARY IN A MORE VISIBLE WAY AS PART OF VENEZUELA POLICY. AND THE PRESIDENT WANTS TO NEGOTIATE, NOT ONLY WITH NORTH KOREA, WHICH AMBASSADOR BOLTON OPPOSED, BUT ALSO WITH IRAN, AND THERE COULD STILL BE THIS MONTH A MEETING BETWEEN PRESIDENT TRUMP, AND IRANIAN PRESIDENT ROUHANI. THAT RELATES TO CRITICISM I HEARD ALL DAY. BOLTON TRIES TO PERSUADE THE PRESIDENT, RATHER THAN PRESENT OPTIONS THAT ALL OF THE AGENCIES HAVE AS THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL IS DESIGNED TO DO. OTHER PEOPLE SAY, NO, THERE WAS SOME PROPER PROCEDURES FOLLOWED, ESPECIALLY ON ON TOPICS LIKE CHINA, BUT THIS WAS NOT ONLY POLICY BUT PERSONALITY. A FORMER SENIOR OFFICIAL TOLD US TODAY THAT BOLTON WOULD TRAVEL ALONE TO TRY AND, YOU KNOW, KIND OF STAY OUT OF SIGHT OF THE PRESIDENT, BECAUSE THE PRESIDENT SIMPLY DIDN’T LIKE BOLTON ON A PERSONAL LEVEL VERY MUCH. AND THAT MEANS WHILE BOLTON DID HAVE A HUGE IMPACT INITIALLY, ESPECIALLY WITH IRAN, THE PRESIDENT AT THE END OF THE DAY DID NOT FOLLOW THROUGH ON BOLTON’S POLICIES.>>Woodruff: AND YAMICHE, AS BOTH YOU AND NICK HAVE BEEN REPORTING, THIS IS THE THIRD NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR TO LEAVE THIS ADMINISTRATION. WHAT IS THE WHITE HOUSE SAYING TODAY ABOUT THE CRITICISM OUT THERE THAT THIS IS A WHITE HOUSE AGAIN IN CHAOS, IN TURMOIL WHEN IT COMES TO NATIONAL SECURITY?>>WHITE HOUSE AIDES ARE REALLY PUSHING BACK ON THE IDEA THAT THE WHITE HOUSE IS IN CHAOS, EVEN AS DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS BECOME CONCERNED WITH THE IDEA THAT WE HAVE SEEN RECORD TURNOVER IN THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION. NOW, WHITE HOUSE SOURCES I WAS TALKING TO ALL DAY TOLD ME THAT JOHN BOLTON WAS CONTINUING TO PRESS THE PRESIDENT EVEN AFTER HE MADE A DECISION ON THINGS LIKE NORTH KOREA, ON THINGS LIKE VENEZUELA, AND AS A RESULT, THIS WAS SOMETHING THEY SAW COMING, BUT THE FACT IS THAT AT 10:55 A.M. THIS MORNING, WHITE HOUSE STAFF PUT OUT A PRESS RELEASE, A PRESS SCHEDULE THAT SAID THAT AMBASSADOR JOHN BOLTON WAS GOING TO BE BRIEFING REPORT ESAT 1:30 P.M., AND THEN AN HOUR LATER AT ABOUT 11:55 A.M., THE PRESIDENT TWEETED THAT JOHN BOLTON WAS, IN FACT, NO LONGER GOING TO BE WITH THE ADMINISTRATION. SO WHAT YOU HAVE IS WITHIN AN HOUR A COMPLETE DIFFERENT MESSAGE COMING FROM THE WHITE HOUSE, AND THAT IN SOME CASES PEOPLE WILL SAY IS THE CHAOS OF THIS WHITE HOUSE. IT’S ALSO NOTED THAT THE PRESIDENT ACTED ON SOCIAL MEDIA WHEN, IN FACT, WITH OTHER PEOPLE, INCLUDING NIKKI HALEY, THE FORMER AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS, SHE HAD A FORMAL SITDOWN OVAL OFFICE DEPARTURE AND SAID GREAT THINGS ABOUT HER SOME WHAT YOU SAW IS A LOVE LOST WITH THE PRESIDENT AND JOHN BOLTON. SO WHILE THE WHITE HOUSE IS PRESSING AND STRESSING THAT THIS WAS NOT CHAOS, THAT EVERYONE SAW THIS COMING, THERE ARE PEOPLE WHO SAY THIS IS THE WHITE HOUSE ONCE AGAIN HAVING A REVOLVING DOOR THAT’S SPINNING AND SPINNING MORE WILDLY AND MORE QUICKLY.>>Woodruff: NOT TO MENTION YOU HAVE THE PRESIDENT SAYING HE ASKED JOHN BOLTON TO LEAVE. JOHN BOLTON SAYS HE OFFERED TO RESIGN. SO YOU HAVE TWO COMPLETELY DIFFERENT STORIES. SO THIS IS ONE THAT IS NOT YET RESOLVED. YAMICHE ALCINDOR, NICK SCHIFRIN, THANK YOU BOTH.>>Woodruff: SO NOW, LET’S GET TWO VIEWS NOW ON WHAT THIS TURMOIL MEANS FOR U.S. FOREIGN POLICY, WITH WENDY SHERMAN, WHO HELD A NUMBER OF SENIOR FOREIGN POLICY POSITIONS IN BOTH THE OBAMA AND CLINTON ADMINISTRATIONS. SHE IS NOW DIRECTOR OF THE CENTER FOR PUBLIC LEADERSHIP AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY’S KENNEDY SCHOOL OF GOVERNMENT. AND, MICHAEL DORAN WAS SENIOR DIRECTOR ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL STAFF FOCUSING ON THE MIDDLE EAST DURING THE GEORGE W. BUSH ADMINISTRATION. HE ALSO SERVED IN THE DEPARTMENTS OF STATE AND DEFENSE. HE IS NOW A SENIOR FELLOW AT THE HUDSON INSTITUTE, A CONSERVATIVE WASHINGTON THINK TANK. AND WELCOME TO THE NEWSHOUR TO BOTH OF YOU. I WANT TO ASK BOTH OF YOU, AND WENDY, I’LL START WITH YOU, WHAT WAS YOUR REACTION WHEN YOU HEARD THIS, AND WHAT IS THE REACTION YOU’RE HEARING FROM OTHERS?>>WELL, THE REACTION INITIALLY WAS NOT REALLY A GREAT DEAL OF SURPRISE, MAYBE ON THE TIME, BUT NOT THE FACT OF JOHN BOLTON’S DEPARTURE. I THINK MANY OF US THOUGHT THIS WAS GOING TO BE COMING DOWN THE ROAD AT ONE TIME OR ANOTHER, AND I THINK A FEW WEEKS AGO MANY OF US THOUGHT IT WAS GOING TO HAPPEN THEN. AS I HAVE SAID BEFORE, JOHN BOLTON INNER SAW A WAR HE DIDN’T WANT TO WAGE. PRESIDENT TRUMP WANTED TO GET AMERICANS OUT OF CONFLICT, WANTED TO TAKE AMERICANS OUT OF AFGHANISTAN, OUT OF THE MIDDLE EAST, DIDN’T WANT TOO GO TO WAR, WANTED TO NEGOTIATE DIRECTLY AT HIGH LEVELS WITH LEADERS OF COUNTRIES, AND JOHN BOLTON HAD A DIFFERENT APPROACH. ON THE OTHER HAND, AS BOTH NICK AND YAMICHE POINTED OUT, BOLTON IN SOME WAYS PROVIDED GUARDRAILS FOR THE PRESIDENT. HE COULDN’T JUST GO HIS MERRY WAY. BUT IN BOTH CASES, BOTH IN THE CASE OF PRESIDENT TRUMP AND OF JOHN BOLTON, PROCESS IS NOT WHAT IS IMPORTANT HERE. EACH OF THESE ARE VERY STRONG MEN WHO BELIEVE THEIR POINT OF VIEW AND THEIR WAY FORWARD IS THE RIGHT WAY FORWARD. ONE, HOWEVER, HAPPENS TO BE THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, AND HE DOES GET TO DECIDE.>>Woodruff: AND MICHAEL DORAN, WHAT WAS YOUR REACTION, AND WHAT ARE ROW HEARING FROM OTHER PEOPLE YOU TALK TO TODAY?>>MY REACTION WAS A LITTLE DIFFERENT. IT WAS A COMBINATION OF… A LITTLE BIT OF DISAPPOINTMENT, BUT LIKE WITH WENDY, I WASN’T ALL THAT SURPRISED. I WAS DISAPPOINTED BECAUSE I LIKE A LOT OF JOHN BOLTON’S POLICIES, IN PARTICULAR I LIKE THE EFFECT THAT HE’S HAD ON THE IRAN DEAL. AND I TEND TO AGREE WITH HIM. BUT I WAS ALWAYS A LITTLE BIT SURPRISED BY THE CHOICE OF HIM AS NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR, BECAUSE THAT JOB IS REALLY BEST DONE BY SOMEONE WHO IS A MASTER OF PROCESS RATHER THAN CONTENT. THEY HAVE TO OBVIOUSLY UNDERSTAND THE CONTENT AND THEY HAVE TO HAVE A DEEP AWARENESS, A DEEP KNOWLEDGE OF FOREIGN POLICY, BUT THE JOB IS A COORDINATING ROLE REALLY. YOU HAVE TO BRING ALL OF THE OTHER PRINCIPALS TOGETHER IN THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL, MAKE SURE THE PRESIDENT UNDERSTANDS THE VIEWS OF THOSE PRINCIPLES AS THOSE PRINCIPLES WANT THEM TO BE UNDERSTOOD. AND THEN TO HELP THE PRESIDENT COME TO A DECISION. AND AS YOUR REPORTER SAID, YOU HAVE TO IMPLEMENT THE PRESIDENT’S DECISION AND NOT PURSUE YOUR OWN AGENDA.>>Woodruff: BUT IT SOUNDS LIKE YOU’RE SAYING, MICHAEL DORAN, THAT YOU DON’T THINK THAT WAS JOHN BOLTON’S STRENGTH, COORDINATION, KEEPING THE TRAINS RUNNING ON TIME IN EFFECT AT THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL?>>EXACTLY. I MEAN, WE ALTHOUGH HE’S — I WORKED WITH HIM WHEN I WAS IN THE BUSH WHITE HOUSE. HE’S AN EXTREMELY TALENTED AND INTELLIGENT PERSON, AND HE’S ALSO A PROFESSIONAL, BUT HE’S A MAN WITH VERY STRONG VIEWS. THAT’S NOT WHAT YOU LOOK FOR IN AN A NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR USUALLY.>>Woodruff: WENDY SHERMAN, WHAT ULTIMATELY DO YOU THINK IS JOHN BOLTON’S EFFECT ON U.S. FOREIGN POLICY? WHERE DID HE MAKE THE MOST DIFFERENCE?>>I THINK HIS EFFECT HAS BEEN QUITE DISASTROUS, BECAUSE WE DON’T HAVE A RESOLUTION TO ANY OF THE MANY PROBLEMS IN FRONT OF US. THE PRESIDENT, OF COURSE, LEFT THE IRAN NUCLEAR DEAL, BUT IRAN IS NOW HEADED BACK TOWARD GETTING A NUCLEAR WEAPON, AND WE DON’T HAVE ANY LESS STATE SPONSORSHIP OF TERRORISM IN THE MIDDLE EAST. WE DON’T HAVE A RESOLUTION ON VENEZUELA, EVEN THOUGH JOHN BOLTON TOOK A VERY MUSCULAR APPROACH TOWARD VENEZUELA, AND THE PRESIDENT I THINK QUITE FRANKLY JUST LOST INTEREST. WE DON’T HAVE RESOLUTION ON NORTH KOREA, AND AS WE ALL KNOW, FAMOUSLY, JOHN BOLTON GOT SENT THE MONGOLIA IN THE PROCESS BECAUSE OF HIS DISAGREEMENTS WITH THE PRESIDENT. WE DON’T HAVE RESOLUTION IN THE CHINA TARIFF TRADE DEAL, AND I WOULD SAY THE ONLY PLACE WHERE JOHN BOLTON’S HAND HAS REALLY SHOWN IS THAT HE DID GET THE PRESIDENT TO WITHDRAW FROM THE I.N.F. TREATY, THE TREATY WITH RUSSIA AROUND MISSILES AND INDEED I THINK THE PRESIDENT DIDN’T MUCH CARE ABOUT THAT AND WAS GLAD TO LET BOLTON TAKE THE LEAD.>>Woodruff: MICHAEL DORAN, DO YOU WANT TO REACT TO THAT? WHERE DO YOU SEE JOHN BOLTON HAVING AFFECTED U.S. FOREIGN POLICY THE MOST?>>I DON’T THINK THAT RESOLUTION OF DISPUTES IS THE STANDARD WE NEED THE LOOK AT, BECAUSE THE UNITED STATES IS GOING TO HAVE ENEMIES BY VIRTUE OF WHO IT IS AND WHAT IT HAS DONE HISTORICALLY. IRAN IS AN ENEMY OF THE UNITED STATES. THAT’S NOT BECAUSE OF ANYTHING THE UNITED STATES HAS DONE. IT’S BECAUSE IRAN WANTS THE DRIVE THE UNITED STATES FROM THE MIDDLE EAST. AND SO BOLTON HELPED THE PRESIDENT PUT TOGETHER A CONTAINMENT POLICY OF IRAN, A POLICY OF COMPETING WITH IRAN, UNLIKE THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION, WHICH BASICALLY OPENED UP THE DOORS TO THE REGION TO LET IRAN DO WHATEVER IT WANTED. SO I THINK THAT BOLTON PLAYED A VERY GOOD ROLE THERE. NO DO YOU THINK, WENDY SHERMAN, LET ME PUT IT THIS WAY, DO YOU THINK IT WILL MAKE A BIG DIFFERENCE, WENDY SHERMAN, THAT JOHN BOLTON IS GONE? WHERE DO YOU SEE IT MAKING A DIFFERENCE?>>I THINK PRESIDENT WILL FEEL THAT HE HAS A COMPLETELY FREE HAND NOW TO DO WHATEVER HE WANTS TO DO. WE HAVE SEEN MICK MULVANEY, THE CHIEF OF STAFF, TAKE A VERY DIFFERENT APPROACH TO PREVIOUS CHIEFS OF STAFF BY LETTING TRUMP SIMPLY BE TRUMP. THE PRESIDENT WANTS TO MAKE HIS OWN DECISIONS. HE BELIEVES HE’S HIS OWN BEST ADVISOR. HE BELIEVES IN PHOTO OPPORTUNITIES AND FLAIR. HE ISN’T SOMEONE WHO VERY MUCH LIKES PROCESS. HE DOESN’T WANT TO RELY ON EXPERTS. HE DOESN’T WANT THE DELIBERATIVE PROCESS THAT MICHAEL HAS OUTLINED. SO I THINK WE WILL SEE THE PRESIDENT HAVE A MORE ENGAGEMENT WITH LEADERS AT HIGH LEVEL, TRY TO TAKE SOME CREATIVE APPROACHES TO VARIOUS ISSUES OF CONCERN, BUT THOSE APPROACHES ARE NOT GOING TO GET US AN OUTCOME THAT PROTECTS AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY BECAUSE THEY WON’T BE WELL PREPARED. THERE WON’T BE A DELIBERATIVE PROCESS, HE WON’T RELY ON THE PEOPLE AROUND HIM WHO CAN BRING HISTORYIOUS UNDERSTANDING, EXPERTISE, AND IDEAS TO THE TABLE.>>Woodruff: AND MICHAEL DORAN, WHAT DO YOU THINK WILL CHANGE? WHAT WILL BE DIFFERENT WITHOUT JOHN BOLTON?>>I THINK IT’S MAINLY ONE OF TACTICS. I THINK JOHN BOLTON WANTED TO HAVE A HARD POLICY AGAINST ACTORS LIKE IRAN, AND HE WANTED IT TO BE CONSTANTLY HARD IN EVERY WAY. I THINK THE PRESIDENT WANTS TO START OUT WITH HARD POLICY. HE WANTS TO HAVE LEVERAGE, BUT THEN HE WANTS TO HAVE TACTICAL FLEXIBILITY WITH HOW HE DEALS WITH THE IRANIAN, INCLUDING MEETING THEM PERHAPS AT THE U.N. GENERAL ASSEMBLY. SO I THINK WE’RE GOING TO SEE A LOT MORE TACTICAL FLEXIBILITY, BUT I’LL BE SURPRISED IF THERE IS A VERY SIGNIFICANT CHANGE IN THE MAIN POLICIES OF THE GOVERNMENT JUST BECAUSE PEOPLE LIKE MIKE POMPEO, WHO HAS A VERY GOOD RELATIONSHIP WITH THE PRESIDENT, DOESN’T HAVE A WORLD VIEW THAT’S SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT THAN JOHN BOLTON. NO MICHAEL DORAN AND WENDY SHERMAN, THANK YOU BOTH VERY MUCH.>>THANK YOU.>>THANK YOU, SWRIEWDY. — JUDY.>>Woodruff: AND IN THE DAY’S OTHER NEWS, SECRETARY OF STATE MIKE POMPEO DISMISSED NEWS ACCOUNTS THAT A C.I.A. INFORMANT WAS RESCUED FROM RUSSIA. CNN AND THE “NEW YORK TIMES” REPORTED THAT THE KREMLIN MOLE WAS EXTRACTED IN 2017. HE WAS SAID TO BE IN GROWING DANGER AFTER EXPOSÉS OF RUSSIAN MEDDLING IN THE 2016 U.S. ELECTION. POMPEO INSISTED TODAY THAT THE REPORTS ARE WRONG– WITHOUT SAYING WHY.>>AS A FORMER C.I.A. DIRECTOR, I DON’T TALK ABOUT THINGS LIKE THIS VERY OFTEN. IT IS ONLY THE OCCASIONS WHEN THERE’S SOMETHING THAT I THINK PUTS PEOPLE AT RISK, OR THE REPORTING IS SO EGREGIOUS AS TO CREATE ENORMOUS RISK TO THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THAT I EVEN COMMENT IN THE WAY THAT I JUST DID. AND I WON’T SAY ANYTHING MORE ABOUT IT. I KNOW THE C.I.A. PUT OUT A STATEMENT. SUFFICE TO SAY, THE REPORTING THERE IS FACTUALLY WRONG.>>Woodruff: THE REPORTS SAID THAT THE INFORMANT WORKED FOR THE C.I.A. FOR DECADES, AND EVENTUALLY GAINED ACCESS TO THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF THE KREMLIN. OFFICIALS IN THE BAHAMAS SAID TODAY THAT THE DEATH TOLL FROM HURRICANE DORIAN HAS RISEN TO AT LEAST 50. SEARCH TEAMS RECOVERED MORE BODIES FROM THE WRECKAGE, LARGELY ON GREAT ABACO ISLAND, AND THEY CONTINUED LOOKING TODAY. EVACUATIONS ON ABACO ARE ALSO CONTINUING, AS THOUSANDS TRY TO GET OUT TO NASSAU. THE HEAD OF THE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION HAS JOINED THE FUROR OVER PRESIDENT TRUMP’S CLAIM THAT HURRICANE DORIAN THREATENED ALABAMA. NEIL JACOBS DEFENDED NOAA TODAY FOR CRITICIZING A BIRMINGHAM- AREA FORECASTING OFFICE THAT CONTRADICTED MR. TRUMP. BUT, HE ALSO THANKED THE FORECASTERS FOR “GOOD INTENT.” THE “NEW YORK TIMES” HAS REPORTED THAT U.S. COMMERCE SECRETARY WILBUR ROSS HAD THREATENED TO FIRE TOP OFFICIALS AT NOAA OVER THE ISSUE. IN IRAQ, AT LEAST 31 PEOPLE WERE KILLED IN A STAMPEDE TODAY, AS SHIITE PILGRIMS MARKED THE HOLY DAY OF ASHOURA. OFFICIALS SAY A WALKWAY COLLAPSED AND TOUCHED OFF CHAOS. IT HAPPENED DURING AN ANNUAL PILGRIMAGE THAT DREW HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF WORSHIPPERS. THEY MARKED THE DEATH OF THE PROPHET MOHAMMED’S GRANDSON HUSSEIN. IN ADDITION TO THE DEAD, AT LEAST 100 PEOPLE WERE INJURED. THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT WAS OFFICIALLY SUSPENDED TODAY FOR ONE MONTH AMID THE BREXIT CHAOS. PRIME MINISTER BORIS JOHNSON FORCED THE SUSPENSION, BUT FIRST, LAWMAKERS VOTED AGAINST LEAVING THE EUROPEAN UNION WITHOUT A FORMAL DEAL. THEY ALSO OPPOSED CALLING NEW ELECTIONS. TODAY, LABOUR LEADER JEREMY CORBYN DUELED WITH JOHNSON AT LONG DISTANCE OVER THE ELECTIONS ISSUE.>>NO ONE CAN TRUST THE WORD OF THE PRIME MINISTER, WHO IS THREATENING TO BREAK THE LAW TO FORCE THROUGH NO-DEAL. SO, A GENERAL ELECTION IS COMING, BUT WE WON’T ALLOW JOHNSON TO DICTATE THE TERMS.>>WHAT A LOAD OF NONSENSE. WE WERE VERY, VERY CLEAR THAT IF PEOPLE WANTED A DEMOCRATIC MOMENT, IF THEY WANTED AN ELECTION, WE OFFERED IT TO THE LABOUR OPPOSITION AND, MYSTERIOUSLY, THEY DECIDED NOT TO GO FOR IT. SO WE’RE GOING TO GET ON.>>Woodruff: JOHNSON HAS VOWED TO DELIVER BREXIT BY THE HALLOWEEN DEADLINE, WITH OR WITHOUT A DEAL. BACK IN THIS COUNTRY, VOTERS IN NORTH CAROLINA’S SPRAWLING NINTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT HEADED BACK TO THE POLLS FOR A REDO OF A 2018 MID-TERM RACE. THE INITIAL RESULTS WERE THROWN OUT OVER EVIDENCE OF FRAUD ON THE REPUBLICAN SIDE. PRESIDENT TRUMP RALLIED VOTERS IN THE DISTRICT LAST NIGHT, IN A RACE SEEN AS A SMALL BELLWETHER FOR THE 2020 ELECTIONS. THE PERCENTAGE OF AMERICANS WITHOUT HEALTH INSURANCE ROSE IN 2018, FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE OBAMACARE WAS PASSED IN 2010. THE U.S. CENSUS BUREAU SAYS THAT 27 MILLION PEOPLE LACKED MEDICAL COVERAGE, OR ABOUT 8.5% OF THE POPULATION. AT THE SAME TIME, THE POVERTY RATE FELL TO ITS LOWEST POINT SINCE 2001. CALIFORNIA NOW HAS TWO NEW LAWS AIMED AT DOCTORS WHO WRITE FRAUDULENT MEDICAL EXEMPTIONS FROM SCHOOL VACCINATIONS. GOVERNOR GAVIN NEWSOM SIGNED THE LEGISLATION ON MONDAY. THE BILLS PASSED AMID A SURGE OF MEASLES CASES THIS YEAR, AND DESPITE EMOTIONAL PROTESTS BY HUNDREDS OF VACCINE OPPONENTS. AND, ON WALL STREET, THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 74 POINTS TO CLOSE AT 26,909. THE NASDAQ FELL THREE POINTS, AND THE S&P 500 ADDED ONE POINT. STILL TO COME ON THE NEWSHOUR: PREVENTING GUN VIOLENCE AND DEBATING IMPEACHMENT. MEMBERS OF CONGRESS RETURN TO WASHINGTON. SNIFFING OUT DANGER. RATS FIND A CALLING IN THE DETECTION OF LAND MINES. AND, MUCH MORE.>>Woodruff: WITH THE AUGUST RECESS NOW OVER, MEMBERS OF CONGRESS SCRAMBLE TODAY TO PRIORITIZE THEIR AGENDA ITEMS. AS CAPITOL HILL CORRESPONDENT LISA DESJARDINS REPORTS, THERE’S A LOT TO CHOOSE FROM.>>Desjardins: THEIR FIRST FULL DAY BACK FROM SUMMER BREAK, HOUSE DEMOCRATS WANTED TO TALK GUNS AND GUN VIOLENCE, HOLDING A FORUM ON THE ISSUE.>>WE WILL FIGHT ON EVERY FRONT: IN THE COURTS, AND IN THE CONGRESS, AND IN THE COURT OF PUBLIC OPINION, TO MAKE SURE THIS ISSUE IS TOO HOT TO HANDLE FOR THE G.O.P. TO BLOCK. WE’RE NOT TAKING “NO” FOR AN ANSWER.>>Desjardins: SPEAKER PELOSI IS PARTICULARLY TOUTING A BILL THE HOUSE ALREADY PASSED, TO EXPAND BACKGROUND CHECKS TO INCLUDE MOST PRIVATE SALES. THAT IDEA HAS GAINED NEW ATTENTION AFTER LAST MONTH’S MASS SHOOTING IN ODESSA, TEXAS. OFFICIALS SAY SEVEN PEOPLE WERE KILLED BY A MAN WHO FAILED A BACKGROUND CHECK, BUT GOT A GUN LATER THROUGH A PRIVATE SALE, WHERE NO BACKGROUND CHECK IS REQUIRED. THAT VIOLENCE, ALONG WITH ATTACKS IN EL PASO AND DAYTON, OHIO LED TO 40 DEATHS. AND ALL OF THAT IS LEADING DEMOCRATS TO PRESSURE THE SENATE TO VOTE ON MORE BACKGROUND CHECKS. SENATE DEMOCRATIC LEADER CHUCK SCHUMER:>>A DEBATE ON GUN SAFETY SHOULD BE OUR FIRST ORDER OF BUSINESS, AND THE PLACE TO START A DEBATE IS A VOTE ON THE HOUSE-PASSED BIPARTISAN BACKGROUND CHECKS BILL.>>Desjardins: BUT IN THE SENATE, ONE VOTE MATTERS MOST– THAT OF REPUBLICAN LEADER MITCH McCONNELL, WHO HAS SAID FOR A GUN BILL TO GET A VOTE, THE PRESIDENT MUST BACK IT FIRST.>>WE DO, IN FACT, AWAIT WORD FROM THE WHITE HOUSE ABOUT WHAT THE PRESIDENT IS WILLING TO SIGN.>>Desjardins: THIS, DESPITE POLLS SHOWING NATIONWIDE, OVERWHELMING SUPPORT FOR INCREASED BACKGROUND CHECKS. AN NPR/PBS NEWSHOUR/MARIST SURVEY OUT TODAY SHOWS THAT 83% OF AMERICANS SUPPORT LAWS REQUIRING BACKGROUND CHECKS FOR GUN SHOW PURCHASES AND PRIVATE SALES. THIS PUTS ENORMOUS PRESSURE ON VULNERABLE REPUBLICAN SENATORS UP FOR RE-ELECTION NEXT YEAR, LIKE SUSAN COLLINS OF MAINE.>>OVER THE AUGUST RECESS, I HAD EXTENSIVE CONVERSATIONS WITH MY COLLEAGUES ON BOTH SIDES OF THE AISLE, AND WITH THE WHITE HOUSE, AND I’M OPTIMISTIC THAT WE COULD REACH AN AGREEMENT ON A PACKAGE THAT WOULD PASS THE SENATE.>>Desjardins: AS SENATORS STRUGGLE TO VOTE ON ANYTHING, HOUSE DEMOCRATS ARE VOTING ON MORE AND STEPPED-UP IDEAS, TODAY, MOVING BILLS THROUGH COMMITTEE TO LIMIT HIGH-CAPACITY MAGAZINES AND SUPPORT MORE RED- FLAG LAWS, ALLOWING LAW ENFORCEMENT TO TAKE WEAPONS FROM ANYONE THOUGHT TO BE DANGEROUS. SOME HOUSE DEMOCRATS ARE PUSHING TO RETURN TO AN ALL-OUT BAN ON ASSAULT-STYLE WEAPONS. BUT, WITH CONGRESS DIVIDED, THE DECIDING VOICE MAY BE PRESIDENT TRUMP’S, WHO MET WITH REPUBLICAN LEADERS ABOUT GUN VIOLENCE TODAY. BUT HE HAS INDICATED BOTH AN OPENNESS AND OPPOSITION TO GUN LEGISLATION IN RECENT DAYS. THEREIN LIES THE CHALLENGE, SAYS DEMOCRATIC SENATOR CHRIS COONS OF DELAWARE.>>I’M SURE HE’LL TAKE A POSITION. THE QUESTION IS, WILL HE HOLD IT? IF HE DOES, HE WILL BE ABLE TO LEAD US FORWARD TO MAKING PROGRESS ON GUNS. IF HE DOESN’T, I THINK WE WILL ALL BE ONCE AGAIN DISAPPOINTED AT THE LACK OF PROGRESS.>>Desjardins: DEMOCRATS ARE HOPING FOR MORE GUN VOTES IN THE HOUSE IN COMING WEEKS. AND I SPOKE LATE TODAY WITH SNOW JOE MANCHIN, WHO IS ONE OF THE PEOPLE INVOLVED IN NEGOTIATION, AND HE TOLD ME THAT HE HEARS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE THAT STAFF THERE PLAN TO PRESENT A APPROPRIATE DAL TO THE PRESIDENT THIS WEEK, BUT JUDY, IT IS NOT CLEAR IF THE PRESIDENT IS GOING TO SAY A CLEAR YES OR NO ON THAT PROPOSAL. MANCHIN AND OTHERS HOPE, SO BUT WE WILL WAIT AND SEE.>>Woodruff: SO MUCH TO KEEP TRACK OF, LISA. A LOT ON THE PLATE. THE OTHER BIG CLOUD HANGING OVER EXPECTATIONS RIGHT NOW HAS TO DO WITH WHETHER THERE’S GOING TO BE A MOVE TOWARD PROCEEDING WITH AN IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY OF THE PRESIDENT. WHAT ARE DEMOCRATS SAYING ABOUT THAT RIGHT NOW?>>DEMOCRATS TOLD US THIS MORNING IN THE HOUSE, ON THE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE, THAT THEY ACTUALLY WANT THE MOVE PAST OR EXPAND PAST THE MUELLER REPORT WITH REGARDS TO IMPEACHMENT. THEY WILL NOW INVESTIGATE OTHER THINGS INVOLVING THE PRESIDENT. AS FAR AS IMPEACHMENT GOES, THOUGH, THEY WILL CHANGE THE PROCESS AND THEY’RE GOING TO ALLOW THEMSELVES SOME MORE POWERS WITHIN THE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE. THEY WERE TAKING A VOTE ON THAT PROCEDURAL IDEA ON THURSDAY. IT’S IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT WOULD ALLOW JERRY NADLER, THE DEMOCRATIC CHAIRMAN OF THAT COMMITTEE, MORE ABILITY TO LINK ANY HEARINGS TO IMPEACHMENT IF HE WANTS. HIS STAFF WOULD HAVE MORE POER, PERHAPS ATTORNEYS TO DO BEHIND CLOSED DOORS QUELLING, AND WE DO EXPECT A SLU OF IMPORTANT WITNESSES COMING UP. NOW, IS IT AN OFFICIAL IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY? A COURT MIGHT SAY NO. DEMOCRATS ARE TRYING THE SAY YES, BUT THE MAJORITY OF DEMOCRATS WANT ONE. IT’S IN THE CLEAR IF THEY HAVE ONE OR NOT.>>Woodruff: SO YET ANOTHER ISSUE. TRADE, DEMOCRATS, CONGRESS FIGURING OUT WHAT TO DO. THE PRESIDENT IS PUSHING THE DEMOCRATS TO RATIFY THE U.S.-MEXICO TRADE AGREEMENT. MEANTIME, YOU HAVE THIS TRADE WAR ESCALATING BETWEEN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES. WHERE DO YOU SEE THAT MOVING?>>I THINK FIRST THING TO FOCUS ON IS THAT U.S.-MEXICO-CANADA TRADE DEAL U.S. MCA. HOUSE DEMOCRATS, THE PRESSURE IS ON THEM FROM MANY BUSINESS INTEREST, INCLUDING AGRICULTURAL INTERESTS AND N SWING DISTRICTS FOR VULNERABLE DEMOCRATS. THEY WANT TO GET THIS THROUGH. BUT HOUSE DEMOCRATS ARE NOT SURE THEY LIKE THE DEAL. THEY’RE NOT SURE IT HAS ENOUGH PROTECTIONS FOR WORKERS IN IT. THESE NEXT FEW WEEKS WILL BE CRITICAL. MY REPORTING FROM TALKING TO DEMOCRATS TODAY, THEY’RE NOT QUITE SURE WHAT THEIR STRATEGY IS ON THIS YET.>>Brangham: OKAY. VERY QUICKLY, LAST THING I WANT TO ASK ABOUT, CLOCK TICKING ON COMING UP WITH A WAY TO FUND THE GOVERNMENT.>>OH, JUST THAT, LET’S FUND THE GOVERNMENT.>>Woodruff: QUICKLY.>>QUICKLY, THE HOPE IS, AND IT LOOK LIKE BOTH THE HOUSE AND SENATE, BOTH PARRIES ARE MOVING TOWARD A CONTINUING RESOLUTION TO KIND OF PUPTD THIS DOWN THE ROAD, FUND GOVERNMENT AT THE END OF THIS MONTH FOR MAYBE ANOTHER MONTH OR TWO WHILE THEY TRY TO WORK OUT A MORE DETAILED BILL. BUT TODAY THERE WERE MANY SIGNS THAT THAT NEXT DEBA IS GOING TO BE WORSE THAN THIS ONE FOR TWO REASON, ONE, THE TOPIC OF ABORTION HAS COME UP AGAIN, AND WHAT FUNDING IS RESTRICTED OR NOT FOR ABORTION, AND ALSO THE PRESIDENT’S DECISION TO DIVERT THAT FUNDING FROM MILITARY PROJECTS FOR THE WALL, THAT’S A HOT ISSUE AND IT’S HARD TO FIGURE OUT HOW THEY WILL GET PAST IT, BUT THEY WILL TRY AND DELAY THAT HARDER DEBATE IF THEY CAN UNTIL AROUND THANKSGIVING.>>Woodruff: LISA DESJARDINS, YOU HAD TO HAVE YOUR TRACK SHOES ON.>>I DID. I WORE FLATS TODAY.>>Woodruff: SO, THE CONGRESSIONAL AGENDA DEPENDS IN LARGE PART ON PRESIDENT TRUMP’S OWN PRIORITIES. OUR WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT YAMICHE ALCINDOR IS BACK. SO YAMICHE, LET’S TALK ABOUT SOME OF THIS. THE PRESIDENT MELT — MET WITH REPUBLICAN LAWMAKERS TODAY. WHAT ARE YOU LEARNING ABOUT WHAT, IF ANYTHING, THEY AGREED ON HOW THE PROCEED?>>WELL, THE BIG PRIORITY OF THIS ADMINISTRATION IS I’M TOLD TO COME UP WITH SOME SORT OF GUN LAW LEGISLATION. I’M TOLD HA THE PRESIDENT IS THINKING THROUGH EXACTLY WHAT THAT’S GOING TO BE. THE WHITE HOUSE WANTS TO RELEASE A PLAN AS EARLY AS LATE THIS WEEK OR EARLY NEXT WEEK, AND I’M TOLD THAT THE PRESIDENT WANTS TO FOCUS ON MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES SOME HE’S INTERESTED IN EITHER CHANGING THE LAW SO THAT THE BACKGROUND CHECKS THAT PEOPLE GO THROUGH NOW MIGHT INCLUDE SOME SORT OF MENTAL HEALTH WELFARE CHECK. THERE IS ALSO THIS IDEA THAT THE WHITE HOUSE MIGHT COME OUT WITH PLAN TO STRENGTHEN AND MAKE IT HARDER FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE HAVING A POSSIBLE MENTAL BREAKDOWN TO GET A GUN OR KEEP THEIR GUN. BUT WHITE HOUSE OFFICIALS HAVE NOT BEEN VERY CLEAR ABOUT WHAT THE PRESIDENT BELIEVES AND REPUBLICANS ON THE HILL ARE REALLY WAITING FOR THE PRESIDENT TO GIVE THEM A STRONG SORT OF DIRECTION ABOUT WHERE HE WANTS TO GO ON GUN LEGISLATION. SO THE OTHER THING OF NOTE IS THAT AS LISA WAS TALKING ABOUT IMPEACHMENT PROCEDURES, THIS WHITE HOUSE IS GEARING UP FOR A FIGHT ON IMPEACHMENT. THEY FEEL AS THOUGH THE IMPEACHMENT PROCEDURES THAT ARE BEING POSSIBLY VOTED ON IN THE HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE, THAT’S GOING TO BE AN AFFRONT TO THE PRESIDENT, AND THEY’RE READY THE FIGHT ON THAT, THEY’RE ALSO READY THE FIGHT ON THE IDEA THAT THE PRESIDENT’S WHITE HOUSE AIDES AND HIS ALLIES MAY BE CALLED UP TO THE HILL. THEY’RE THINKING THROUGH WHETHER OR NOT THEY’RE GOING TO HAVE SOME SORT OF PRIVILEGE THAT THEY’RE GOING TO ASSERT THERE. SO THERE IS A LOT THE WHITE HOUSE IS STRUGGLING WITH, BUT THE NUMBER-ONE THING IS ON GUNS AND IMPEACHMENT.>>Woodruff: YAMICHE, I WANT TO ASK YOU ABOUT THE ADMINISTRATION AND SCIENCE. THERE HAS BEEN THIS CONTROVERSY OVER THE LAST NUMBER OF DAYS ABOUT HOW THIS DRAWING APPEARED ON A MAP OF THE WEATHER OF THE HURRICANE DORIAN, HOW BAD IT WAS GOING TO HIT THE UNITED STATES, WHETHER IT WAS GOING TO HIT THE STATE OF ALABAMA, WHICH APPEARED IN THAT DRAWING THAT WE SAW IN THE WHITE HOUSE. WHAT ARE YOU HEARING AT THE WHITE HOUSE RIGHT NOW ABOUT THESE QUESTIONS ABOUT WHETHER THE WHITE HOUSE IS INTERFERING IN THE PREP RAT ROLE OF AGENCIES THAT CONDUCT SCIENCE?>>WELL, THIS IS AN ISSUE THAT STARTED OFF SMALL THAT PEOPLE THOUGHT WAS GOING TO GO AWAY AND THAT THE PRESIDENT HAS ESSENTIALLY DRAGGED ON AND ON AND ON. THE WHITE HOUSE SAYS THE PRESIDENT WAS RIGHT AND PEOPLE ARE MAKING TOO MUCH OF THIS, BUT THE HEAD OF THE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION CAME OUT AND SAID THE WEATHER SHOULD NOT BE POLITICIZED. AND THERE IS THIS IDEA THAT THE COMMERCE SECRETARY, WILBUR ROSS WAS THREATENING EMPLOYEES AT NOAA TO FALL IN LINE WITH THE PRESIDENT AND NOT TALK ABOUT THE FACT THAT ALABAMA WAS NOT GOING TO BE IMPACTED BY THE HURRICANE.>>Woodruff: SO MUCH FOR YOU TO KEEP TRACK OF, YAMICHE, BETWEEN JOHN BOLTON AND ALL OF THIS. YAMICHE ALCINDOR AT THE WHITE HOUSE, LISA DESJARDINS AT THE CAPITOL. THANK YOU BOTH.>>Woodruff: THEY ARE LETHAL LEGACIES OF WAR. LANDMINES PRESENT A CONSTANT, HIDDEN THREAT. SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT FRED DE SAME LAZARO REPORTS FROM CAMBODIA, WHERE THE DANGER IS PART OF DAILY LIFE. BUT, AN UNLIKELY BATTALION OF ANIMALS IS MAKING A DIFFERENCE. THIS IS PART OF FRED’S SERIES, “AGENTS FOR CHANGE.”>>Reporter: LET’S FACE IT, RODENTS RARELY TRIGGER WARM FUZZY FEELINGS IN MOST PEOPLE. BUT, THESE AFRICAN GIANT POUCH RATS, BEING GENTLY AWOKEN FROM THEIR CAGES, ARE CALLED HERO RATS BY THEIR HANDLERS. THEY HAVE NAMES LIKE HARRY POTTER, GODIVA, AND, ER… FREDERICK– NO RELATION. AFTER GETTING SUNSCREENED UP, THIS “RAT PACK” OF 11 ANIMALS IS HEADED OUT BEFORE DAWN TO A FORMER BATTLEFIELD IN RURAL CAMBODIA. THEIR TASK: SNIFF OUT LANDMINES.>>EVERYONE WAS SURPRISED, EVEN ME. BEFORE I CAME TO APOPO, I HEARD THAT THE RATS WERE DETECTING LANDMINES. IT WAS LIKE SOMETHING UNBELIEVABLE TO ME.>>Reporter: MARK SHUKURU IS HEAD RAT TRAINER IN CAMBODIA FOR THE BELGIAN NON-PROFIT APOPO. HE IS FROM TANZANIA, WHERE THIS SPECIES IS ALSO NATIVE, AND HE LEARNED EARLY THAT THEY HAVE SOME OF THE MOST SENSITIVE NOSES IN THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. EACH COMES OUT OF A RIGOROUS PROGRAM IN TANZANIA, SHOWN IN THIS PROMOTIONAL VIDEO, THAT TRAINS THEM TO DISTINGUISH EXPLOSIVES FROM OTHER SCENTS. EACH TIME THEY SNIFF OUT T.N.T. BURIED IN THIS TEST FIELD, A TRAINER USES A CLICKER TO MAKE A DISTINCT SOUND, AND THEY GET A TREAT.>>SO, T.N.T. SMELL, CLICKER, FOOD. T.N.T. SMELL, CLICKER, FOOD. T.N.T. SMELL, CLICKER, FOOD.>>Reporter: THE DRILL CAN TAKE UP TO 12 MONTHS BEFORE HANDLERS ARE CONFIDENT THAT WHEN THE ANIMAL SCRATCHES IN PLACE, AN EXPLOSIVE IS BURIED BELOW.>>WE HAVE NEVER MISSED ANYTHING WITH THE RATS. SO THEY’RE DOING GOOD.>>Reporter: RATS HAVE A NUMBER OF ADVANTAGES COMPARED TO HUMAN DE-MINERS, WHO MUST RELY ON METAL DETECTORS. THEY DETECT A LOT OF SCRAP METAL– THESE ARE, AFTER ALL, OLD BATTLEFIELDS. THEY ARE LITTER, BUT THEY DON’T ALWAYS CONTAIN EXPLOSIVES. WHEREAS THESE GUYS ARE TRAINED TO SNIFF OUT THE T.N.T. SPECIFICALLY, WHICH IS THE EXPLOSIVE IN MOST MINES. SINCE 2016, APOPO’S HERO RATS HAVE FOUND ROUGHLY 500 ANTI- PERSONNEL MINES AND MORE THAN 350 UNEXPLODED BOMBS IN CAMBODIA. THEY’RE THE SECOND ANIMAL TO BE DEPLOYED IN MINE CLEARANCE. DOGS WERE FIRST. ANIMALS CAN WORK MUCH FASTER THAN HUMANS, ALTHOUGH WHEN THE LAND IS DENSELY MINED, METAL DETECTORS ARE CONSIDERED MORE EFFICIENT. THUCH LY, WHO LEADS THE GOVERNMENT’S DE-MINING EFFORT, SAYS THERE’S PLENTY OF WORK TO GO AROUND. THE MINISTRY HAS EXHAUSTIVE MAPS OF AREAS IT CALLS “CONTAMINATED.”>>WE COME OUT WITH THE NUMBERS THAT ARE AROUND FOUR TO SIX MILLION ANTI-PERSONNEL LANDMINES IN THIS COUNTRY, SO WE STILL HAVE A LONG WAY TO GO TO CLEAR ALL OF THEM.>>Reporter: THAT TRANSLATES TO A LOT OF CONTAMINATED LAND IN THIS LARGELY RURAL AGRARIAN COUNTRY, AN ECONOMIC AND EXISTENTIAL THREAT.>>WE HAVE MORE THAN 26,000 PEOPLE KILLED AND INJURED OVER THE YEARS– 30% OF THEM ARE WOMEN AND CHILDREN.>>Reporter: IT’S THE LEGACY OF THREE DECADES OF CONFLICT THAT ENDED IN THE LATE ’90s. IN CAMBODIA’S WEST, LANDMINES WERE BURIED BY THE GENOCIDAL KHMER ROUGE REGIME, AND BY THE VIETNAMESE ARMY THAT DROVE THEM FROM POWER ALONGSIDE THE NEW CAMBODIAN ARMY. IN THE EAST, NEAR VIETNAM, LIE MILLIONS OF TONS OF UNEXPLODED AMERICAN BOMBS DROPPED DURING THE WAR. THIS MAY BE THE ONLY COUNTRY WITH A LANDMINE MUSEUM. IT WAS STARTED BY AKI RA, WHO WAS CONSCRIPTED AS A CHILD TO FIGHT FOR THE KHMER ROUGE. HE LAID MINES HIMSELF, AND HAS SPENT MUCH OF HIS ADULT LIFE TRYING TO REMOVE THEM. HE DISARMED MANY OF THE DEVICES ON DISPLAY HERE HIMSELF, AND SAYS HIS GOAL IS TO RAISE AWARENESS OF WHAT MINES CAN DO.>>( translated ): THE CHILDREN DURING MY TIME ALL WENT THROUGH IT, BUT IT SEEMS LIKE THE YOUNG, THE CHILDREN GROWING UP DURING THIS GENERATION, THEY’RE NOT AWARE OF THE DANGER OR THE CASUALTIES OF LANDMINES THAT STILL OCCUR TODAY IN CAMBODIA.>>Reporter: TENS OF THOUSANDS OF CAMBODIANS LIVE IN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO THE DORMANT KILLERS. THIS SCHOOL WAS JUST STEPS FROM THE MINEFIELD WE VISITED WITH THE APOPO RATS.>>PEOPLE ARE FORCED TO ENTER THESE CONTAMINATED AREAS QUITE SIMPLY BECAUSE THEY DON’T HAVE A CHOICE. BECAUSE THEIR LIVELIHOODS DEPEND ON IT.>>Reporter: REBECCA LETVEN WORKS WITH THE BRITISH MINES ADVISORY GROUP, ONE OF SEVERAL AID AGENCIES WORKING IN CAMBODIA. 27 YEARS INTO THE COLLECTIVE EFFORT, THEY’VE FREED UP SOME 18,000 ACRES. THAT’S LESS THAN A TENTH OF THE TERRAIN CONSIDERED CONTAMINATED.>>IT’S IMPORTANT THAT WE DON’T FORGET WHAT HAPPENED HERE IN CAMBODIA, AND WE DON’T FORGET THAT THE COUNTRY ITSELF IS STILL VERY HEAVILY CONTAMINATED.>>Reporter: THIS YEAR’S TOLL SO FAR– 11 KILLED AND 51 INJURED. AT THIS REGIONAL PROSTHESIS HOSPITAL, A STEADY STREAM OF VICTIMS ARRIVES EACH DAY TO BE FITTED OR REFITTED WITH ARTIFICIAL LIMBS.>>( translated ): THE OLD ONE WAS GETTING REALLY TIGHT, ESPECIALLY AROUND MY THIGH.>>Reporter: 39-YEAR-OLD SNA HIM STEPPED ON A LANDMINE IN 2002. LIKE MANY PATIENTS HERE, HE’S A SMALL FARMER, GROWING RUBBER AND CASHEW NUTS WITH HIS WIFE AND THREE CHILDREN.>>( translated ): I AM ALWAYS VERY CAREFUL WHEN I WALK IN THE FIELDS, BECAUSE I AM WORRIED IT COULD HAPPEN TO MY OTHER LEG. I FEEL VERY UPSET THAT I LOST A PART OF MY BODY, BECAUSE IT PREVENTS ME FROM DOING OTHER ACTIVITIES THAT NORMAL PEOPLE ARE ABLE TO DO.>>Reporter: MEANWHILE, THE VARIOUS DE-MINING TEAMS CONTINUE TO INCH FORWARD WITH THE TEDIOUS, DANGEROUS WORK. THERE’S LITTLE EVIDENCE ANYMORE OF THE HOSTILITY THAT DROVE THE SHATTERING CONFLICT. OLD COMBATANTS HAVE MOVED ON OVER TIME, BUT, MINISTER THUCH LAMENTS, SO HAS THE WORLD’S ATTENTION.>>I THINK THERE’S A MORAL OBLIGATION FOR EVERYBODY INVOLVED IN WAR IN THE PAST. I THINK THAT IT WAS THE COLD WAR AND THEN SMALL NATIONS LIKE CAMBODIA ARE THE VICTIMS OF THIS.>>Reporter: APOPO PLANS TO BRING IN 40 MORE RATS, TO EXPAND THE FORCE AND REPLACE RETIREES. EACH ANIMAL WORKS ABOUT EIGHT YEARS, AND THEN LIVES OUT THE REST OF ITS DAYS ALONGSIDE FELLOW HEROES. ALL, WORKING TOWARD THE DAY WHEN THEY CAN BROADCAST TO THE WORLD THAT CAMBODIA HAS DESTROYED THE LAST UNEXPLODED BOMB. THE GOVERNMENT WANTS THAT TO HAPPEN BY 2025. ITS BIG TASK IS TO CONVINCE ENOUGH DONORS TO HELP WITH THE CAUSE. ( THREE WHISTLE BLOWS ) ( EXPLOSION ) FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR, THIS IS FRED DE SAM LAZARO, NEAR SIEM REAP, CAMBODIA.>>Woodruff: HARVEY WEINSTEIN WAS A TITAN OF THE FILM INDUSTRY, THE PROLIFIC AND POWERFUL HOLLYWOOD MEDIA MOGUL BEHIND OSCAR-WINNING PICTURES LIKE “SHAKESPEARE IN LOVE” AND “PULP FICTION.” BUT ON OCTOBER 5, 2017, ALL THAT CAME CRASHING DOWN. ON THAT DAY, A “NEW YORK TIMES” INVESTIGATION, LED BY REPORTERS JODI KANTOR AND MEGAN TWOHEY, WAS PUBLISHED. IT EXPOSED FOR THE FIRST TIME A DECADES-LONG TRAIL OF ALLEGED ABUSE TOWARD ACTORS, FORMER EMPLOYEES AND OTHERS. THIS INCLUDED ALLEGATIONS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT, HARASSMENT AND A COORDINATED CAMPAIGN OF INTIMIDATION MEANT TO KEEP WOMEN SILENT. KANTOR AND TWOHEY’S REPORTING ON WEINSTEIN MARKED A MILESTONE IN THE CULTURAL MOMENT KNOWN AS THE “ME TOO” MOVEMENT. IN THEIR BOOK, “SHE SAID,” WHICH IS OUT TODAY, KANTOR AND TWOHEY REVEAL THE INNER WORKINGS OF THEIR INVESTIGATION. JODI KANTOR AND MEGAN TWOHEY JOIN ME NOW FROM NEW YORK. THANK YOU TO BOTH OF YOU FOR JOINING US. CONGRATULATIONS ON THE BOOK. JODI, I’M GOING TO START WITH YOU. THE TWO OF YOU DID HELP CHANGE THE LANDSCAPE, THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE IN THIS COUNTRY WHEN IT COMES TO HOW WOMEN ARE TREATED IN TERMS OF SEXUAL MISCONDUCT, BUT WHAT I WANT TO ASK YOU IS WHY DO YOU THINK WOMEN BEFORE NOW HAVE NOT BEEN WILLING TO TALK ABOUT THESE KINDS OF THINGS?>>TO BE HONEST, IN OUR EXPERIENCE, WOMEN SOMETIMES STILL HAVE A REALLY HARD TIME TALKING ABOUT THESE THINGS. EVEN THOUGH “ME TOO” HAS CERTAINLY CHANGED THINGS AND CERTAINLY SOME OF THE STIGMA IS GONE, WOMEN STILL HAVE A PRETTY TOUGH TIME COMING FORWARD, AND THERE ARE TWO STORIES WE TELL IN THE BOOK ABOUT THIS. ONE IS ABOUT A RECENT STORIES. ONE OF THE FIGURES IN OUR BOOK IS A WOMAN WHO IS A CENTRAL WEINSTEIN VICTIM, BECAUSE THERE WAS SO MUCH COVER-UP IN HER PARTICULAR ALLEGATIONS. WE APPROACHED ROWENA IN THE SUMMER OF 2017. SHE WOULDN’T ANSWER OUR MESSAGES OR PHONE CALLS. WE HAD TO SHOW UP AND KNOCK ON HER DOOR. WE REACHED ONLY HER HUSBAND, WHO KNEW NOTHING ABOUT THESE ALLEGATIONS. IT TURNED OUT SHE HAD NEVER TOLD HER HUSBAND. FOR TWO YEARS WE KEPT IN TOUCH WITH HER BEHIND THE SCENES. SHE WOULDN’T EVEN SPEAK TO US UNTIL A FEW MONTHS AGO. FINALLY SHE WENT ON THE RECORD IN OUR BOOK, AND IT TOOK TWO YEARS OF DISCUSSION TO GET THERE. AND THEN I THINK THE OTHER STORY WE TELL THAT’S SO INDICATIVE IS THE SAGA OF CHRISTINE PLAZAY FORD COMING FORWARD AND THE BEHIND-THE-SCENES TESTIMONY, WHICH IS A DIFFICULT STORY FULL OF TOUGH DECISIONS ABOUT WHETHER OR NOT TO COME FORWARD PUBLICLY.>>Woodruff: I WANT TO GET TO SOME OF THE INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING YOU DID. YOU TWO KNOCKED ON HUNDREDS OF DOORS. YOU SENT HUNDREDS OF E-MAILS AND TEXTS, MEGAN, WHAT DID IT TAKE? WHAT DID YOU DO, DO YOU THINK THAT BROKE THIS STORY OPEN WHEN OTHERS HADN’T BEEN ABLE TO?>>ANOTHER ONE OF THE REAL CHALLENGES IN DOING THIS REPORTING IS THAT MANY OF THE WOMEN WHO HAD BEEN VICTIMIZED BY HARVEY HAD ALSO BEEN LEGALLY SILENCED BY HIM THROUGH THESE SECRET SETTLEMENTS. THESE HAVE APPLIED TO NOT JUST VICTIMS OF HARVEY WEINSTEIN BUT VICTIMS OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT ACROSS THE COUNTRY. SO WHEN A REPORTER COMES KNOCKING, I’LL TELL YOU THE STORY, THERE WITH WAS A WOMAN WHO HAD WORKED FOR WEINSTEIN IN 1990 AND HAD BEEN ALLEGEDLY SEXUALLY ASSAULTED BY HIM AND WE TRACKED HER DOWN TO A FAMILY HOME HERE IN NEW YORK, JUST OUTSIDE NEW YORK, KNOCKED ON HER DOOR. SHE OPENED IT. SHE HAD A YOUNG DAUGHTER BY HER SIDE LOOKING UP. AN SHE SAID, I HAVE BEEN WAITING FOR THIS KNOCK ON MORE DOOR FOR 25 YEARS, AND YET BECAUSE OF THIS SECRET SETTLEMENT THAT SHE HAD BEEN REQUIRED TO SIGN, SHE WAS TERRIFIED OF SPEAKING OUT. SO THIS WAS ONE OF THE CHALLENGES THAT WE FACE IN THE COURSE OF OUR INVESTIGATION. BUT WE ALSO REALIZED THAT THESE SECRET SETTLEMENTS THAT HAVE BEEN USED TO COVER UP MISCONDUCT FOR SO MANY YEARS IS THAT IF WE’RE ABLE TO PIECE TOGETHER THE FINANCIAL TRAIL OF PAYOFFS, IT WOULD ACTUALLY HELP ILLUMINATE THE MISCONDUCT.>>Woodruff: WELL, THE WORK THAT GOES INTO INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING COMES THROUGH LOUD AND CLEAR IN YOUR WRITING IN THE BOOK. JODI KANTOR, WHAT DID IT TAKE TO GET PROMINENT FIGURES LIKE GWYNETH PALTROW, MOVIES STARS, I’M ASSUMING WITHOUT THEM, WITHOUT THEIR TALKING, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN MUCH HARDER TO GET OTHER PEOPLE THE TALK. WHAT DID IT TAKE TO GET THEM?>>THE FIRST STEP WAS TO TRY TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO EVEN REACH THESE WOMEN PRIVATELY. WE COULDN’T GO THROUGH AGENTS. WE COULDN’T GO THROUGH PUBLICISTS. AND THEN THERE’S THE QUESTION OF, IF YOU DO GET UMA THURMAN OR ASHLEY JUDD OR GWYNETH PALTROW ON THE PHONE, WHAT DO YOU ACTUALLY SAY TO THEM IN THE FIRST 45 SECONDS OF THE PHONE CALL THE TRY TO EARN THAT TRUST. BUT ACTUALLY, THINGS ENDED UP WORKING A LITTLE DIFFERENTLY THAN YOU DESCRIBE, WHICH IS ESSENTIALLY WE REALIZED THAT THE HOLLYWOOD SILENCE OVER HARVEY WEINSTEIN WAS HOLDING. WE WERE ACCUMULATING THIS STACK OF OFF-THE-RECORD DISTURBING HOTEL ROOM STORIES, BUT ALL OF THESE ACTRESSES WERE VERY AFRAID TO GO ON THE RECORD, SO WHAT WE STARTED DOING WAS BUILDING A MOUNTAIN OF OTHER EVIDENCE, AND THAT MOUNTAIN CONSISTED OF INTERNAL RECORDS, THE LEGAL AND FINANCIAL TRAIL OF THE SETTLEMENTS, A VERY IMPORTANT INTERNAL COMPANY MEMO, AND IT WAS REALLY BEING HAVING THAT EVIDENCE THAT WE WERE ABLE TO MAKE THE CASE TO ASHLEY JUDD TO GET ON THE RECORD, BECAUSE WE SAID, WE’RE NOT PUTTING YOU INTO A HE SAID/SHE SAID SITUATION WHERE YOU’RE STANDING HERE ALONE. WE HAVE 25 YEARS WORTH OF ALLEGATIONS DOCUMENTED. THAT BECOMES A BASIS THAT YOU CAN STAND ON FOR COMING FORWARD.>>Woodruff: I SAW THAT WAS PART OF THE ARGUMENT YOU WERE MAKING TO SO MANY WOMEN, YOU WERE SAYING, WE OWE IT TO THESE OTHER WOMEN, BECAUSE OF WHAT THEY HAVE GONE THROUGH, TO TALK NOW. MEGAN TWOHEY, WHAT ABOUT HARVEY WEINSTEIN HIMSELF? HOW TOUGH OF A CHARACTER ARE WE TALKING ABOUT GOING UP AGAINST?>>WHEN WE BROKE THIS STORY IN 2017, IT WAS JUST THE BEGINNING. WE HAD BEEN ABLE TO CONNECT SOME OF THE DOTS ABOUT HIS ALLEGED SPREADDATION GOING BACK DECADES AND HOW HE HAD BEEN ABLE TO COVER IT UP, BUT WITH THE ADDITIONAL REPORTING FOR THIS BOOK, WE STARTED TO PULL BACK THE CURTAIN ON THE MACHINERY THAT WAS IN PLACE THAT HARVEY PUT MANY PLACE TO SILENCE HIS VICTIMS AND TRY THE HALT OUR INVESTIGATION. THAT INCLUDED AMASSING LIKE TEAM OF VERY HIGH-POWERED ATTORNEYS, INCLUDING LISA BLOOM, ONE OF THE MOST PROMINENT FEMINIST ATTORNEY, IN THE COUNTRY WHO MADE THE REMARKABLE DECISION TO CROSS SIDES TO WORK FOR HIM IN 2016 AND 2017 AS HE WAS TRYING TO FIGHT BACK THIS STORY. IT ALSO INCLUDED BLACK CUBE, THIS PRIVATE INVESTIGATIVE FIRM MADE UP OF FORMER ISRAELI INTELLIGENCE AGENTS WHO WERE BASICALLY PROMISED A $300,000 BONUS BY WEINSTEIN IF THEY COULD SUCCEED IN STOPPING OUR INVESTIGATION.>>Woodruff: JODI, HOW MUCH DO YOU THINK THINGS HAVE CHANGED FOR WORKING WOMEN AS A RESULT OF YOUR REPORTING AND THE REPORTING OF OTHERS ON HARVEY WEINSTEIN AND OTHER PROMINENT MEN WHO HAVE BEEN ACCUSED IN THE LAST FEW YEARS?>>WHAT’S SO CONFOUNDING IS THAT EVERYTHING HAS CHANGED AND NOTHING HAS CHANGED AT THE SAME TIME. ON THE ONE HAND, IT REALLY FEELS LIKE WE ALL LIVED THROUGH A SEISMIC SOCIAL SHIFT. AND THERE REALLY IS LOTS OF EVIDENCE RANGING FROM THE PERIOD OF KIND OF MASS ACCOUNTABILITY AFTER THE STORY BROKE WHERE ALL OF THESE MEN WERE FIRED OF HAD THE LEAVE THEIR JOBS, THE FACT THAT THERE ARE SO MANY STATE LAWS TO THE FACT THAT CORPORATIONS ARE TAKING THIS MUCH MORE SERIOUSLY. WE READ IN-DEPTH ABOUT THE WEINSTEIN COMPANY, BECAUSE WE TRY TO SHOW HOW THIS ORGANIZATION WAS TRYING TO PROTECT ITSELF INSTEAD OF PROTECTING WOMEN, AND IN THE PROCESS IT BASICALLY DESTROYED ITSELF. SO ON THE ONE HAND, THERE IS ALL OF THAT CHANGE. ON THE OTHER HAND, IF YOU GO INTO TH EVERYDAY WORKPLACE TODAY, ESPECIALLY FOR LOW-INCOME WOMEN, DOES ANYTHING FEEL REALLY DIFFERENT? IT’S STILL REALLY HARD TO REPORT FEDERAL SEXUAL HARASSMENT LAWS ARE STILL REALLY WEAK, AND I THINK THAT THERE’S ALSO NOW A LOT OF CONTROVERSY ABOUT “ME TOO,” WHICH CAN SOMETIMES SEEM LIKE A REALLY PRODUCTIVE DEBATE AND SOMETIMES FEEL LIKE JUST THIS HUGE ARGUMENT THAT’S NOT REALLY GOING ANYWHERE. SO I THINK THE QUESTION REMAINS TO BE SEEN, WHAT ARE ALL OF US COLLECTIVELY GOING TO DO WITH THIS PERIOD THAT WE LIVE THROUGH. WHAT ARE WE GOING TO TELL OUR GRANDKIDS ABOUT THIS ERA? ARE WE GOING TO SAY, ARE WE GOING TO BE ABLE TO SAY, I WAS THERE WHEN THINGS REALLY SHIFTED, OR ARE THEY GOING TO BE TELLING US, OH, YES, THAT STILL HAPPENS AT MY SUMMER JOB.>>Woodruff: VERY GOOD QUESTION. AN MEGAN, FINALLY, YOU KNOW, JODI JUST MENTIONED THE CONTROVERSY. YOU ARE ONE STARTING TO HEAR CONVERSATION MORE AND MORE ABOUT WHETHER ME TOO HAS GONE TOO FAR, AND WHETHER MEN HAVE GOTTEN SWEPT UP IN THIS WHO SHOULDN’T HAVE BEEN. HOW DOES ONE KNOW WHAT IS TOO FAR?>>WELL, LISTEN, I THINK THERE IS ABSOLUTE AGREEMENT BY BOTH ACCUSERS AND THE ACCUSED THAT THERE HAS NOT BEEN THE TYPE OF SUBSTANTIAL REFORM THAT CAN GUARANTEE THAT THERE IS A FAIR SYSTEM BY WHICH COMPLAINTS CAN BE MADE AND VETTED AND BY WHICH PEOPLE CAN DETERMINE GUILT OR INNOCENCE AND ALSO WHAT ACCOUNTABILITY LOOKS LIKE. AND SO LISTEN, THERE IS NO QUESTION THAT THERE STILL NEEDS TO BE A LOT OF SYSTEMATIC CHANGE MOVING FORWARD TO MAKE SURE THAT EVERYBODY IS ADEQUATELY PROTECTED, BUT WE AS REPORTERS FEEL LIKE YOU CAN’T REALLY SOLVE A PROBLEM THAT YOU CAN’T SEE, AND SO WE REALLY CONSIDER IT OUR JOB TO JUST CONTINUE UNEARTHING THE FACTS AND HELPING TO BRING THEM TO LIGHT.>>Woodruff: WELL, REMARKABLE TO HEAR YOU SAY YOU ARE STILL REPORTING ON THIS DAY AFTER DAY AFTER DAY. AGAIN, CONGRATULATIONS ON THE BOOK “SHE SAID.” IT’S JODI KANTOR AND MEGAN TWOHEY. THANK YOU BOTH.>>THANK YOU SO MUCH.>>THANK YOU.>>Woodruff: NOW, CELEBRATING A UNIQUE LENS TO SEE LIFE. AMNA NAWAZ REMEMBERS ONE OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL PHOTOGRAPHERS OF THE 20th CENTURY, PART OF OUR “CANVAS” SERIES.>>YOU KNOW, YOU’RE A HUNTER. YOU’RE HUNTING FOR A GOOD PICTURE.>>Nawaz: HE WAS BEST KNOWN FOR VIVIDLY CAPTURING AMERICA’S QUIRKS AND SPOTLIGHTING THE COUNTRY’S SOCIAL DIVISIONS IN EVERYDAY LIFE. ROBERT FRANK WAS BORN IN SWITZERLAND TO A WEALTHY EUROPEAN JEWISH FAMILY, BUT HE WAS DECIDEDLY AN AMERICAN, ONE WHO MANAGED TO MAINTAIN AN OUTSIDER’S POINT OF VIEW– AS HE HIMSELF NOTED IN THE 2015 DOCUMENTARY ABOUT HIS CAREER, “DON’T BLINK.”>>I TRIED NOT TO TALK TO THEM, AND I DIDN’T WANT THEM TO TALK TO ME.>>Nawaz: FRANK EMIGRATED TO NEW YORK IN 1947, AND STARTED WORK AT “HARPERS BAZAAR,” BUT HE SOON BECAME AWARE OF MANY OF THE STARK CONTRASTS IN AMERICAN SOCIETY. THAT PERSPECTIVE WAS A DRIVING FORCE BEHIND HIS MOST CELEBRATED WORK, 1957’S “THE AMERICANS.” STARTING IN 1955, FRANK CRISS- CROSSED THE COUNTRY, SNAPPING 28,000 PHOTOS IN JUST TWO YEARS, ULTIMATELY CULLING THEM DOWN TO A COLLECTION OF JUST 83. HIS WORK WAS IN SHARP CONTRAST TO MORE TRADITIONAL, OPTIMISTIC PHOTOS OF THE TIME. FRANK REFLECTED ON THAT WORK IN “DON’T BLINK:”>>WHEN I LOOK AT THE 83 PHOTOGRAPHS I CHOSE FOR THE BOOK, I THINK I REALLY GOT THE ESSENCE.>>Nawaz: LIKE THIS SHOT OF MOTORCYCLISTS IN INDIANAPOLIS. A TROLLEY CAR IN NEW ORLEANS. AND A POLITICAL RALLY IN CHICAGO. SARAH GREENOUGH IS THE DIRECTOR OF PHOTOGRAPHY AT THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART IN WASHINGTON, D.C. SHE KNEW FRANK, AND SAYS “THE AMERICANS” REVEALED A COUNTRY THAT WAS PLAGUED BY RACISM AND CONSUMERISM.>>HE LOOKED BENEATH THE SURFACE, SEEING THESE ILLS IN AMERICAN SOCIETY, BUT HE ALSO PHOTOGRAPHED NOVEL AREAS OF BEAUTY WITHIN THE COUNTRY. SUBJECTS THAT OTHER PHOTOGRAPHERS HAVEN’T PREVIOUSLY LOOKED AT, SUCH AS CARS, DINERS, AND EVEN THE ROAD ITSELF.>>Nawaz: GREENOUGH SAYS THE BOOK ALSO MADE FRANK’S UNIQUE ARTISTIC STYLE INFLUENTIAL:>>MANY OF THEM HAVE A SORT OF FAST, SEEMINGLY INTUITIVE LOOK, AS IF HE JUST TURNED AROUND AND CAPTURED THE IMAGE. THEY’RE OFTEN OFF-KILTER, WHICH GIVES A GREAT SENSE OF DYNAMISM TO THEM. THE BOOK, “THE AMERICANS” WAS INITIALLY REVILED BY THE CRITICS, BUT IT VERY QUICKLY BECAME EMBRACED BY A YOUNGER GENERATION OF PHOTOGRAPHERS, AND THEN OTHERS.>>Nawaz: FRANK’S WORK FEATURED OTHER CULTURAL ICONS OF THE DAY. HE BEFRIENDED “BEAT” WRITER JACK KEROUAC SHORTLY AFTER COMPILING “THE AMERICANS,” AND KEROUAC LATER WROTE THE BOOK’S FORWARD. AND, FRANK’S BLACK-AND-WHITE PHOTOS WERE FEATURED ON THE COVER OF THE ROLLING STONES’ CRITICALLY-ACCLAIMED 1972 ALBUM “EXILE ON MAIN STREET.” LATER IN HIS CAREER, FRANK CONTINUED TO SHOOT PHOTOS AND FILM, LARGELY FOCUSING HIS LENS ON AMERICA’S LEAST PRIVILEGED, RATHER THAN THE POWERFUL. ROBERT FRANK DIED MONDAY, IN NOVA SCOTIA. HE WAS 94 YEARS OLD.>>Woodruff: AND THERE’S MORE ONLINE, WHERE WE TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT ONE OF FRANK’S MOST ENDURING IMAGES FROM HIS BOOK “THE AMERICANS.” THAT’S ON OUR WEBSITE, www.pbs.org/newshour. AND THAT IS THE NEWSHOUR FOR TONIGHT. I’M JUDY WOODRUFF. FOR ALL OF US AT THE PBS NEWSHOUR, THANK YOU, AND WE’LL SEE YOU SOON.>>MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY:>>BNSF RAILWAY.>>CONSUMER CELLULAR.>>FINANCIAL SERVICES FIRM RAYMOND JAMES.>>THE FORD FOUNDATION. WORKING WITH VISIONARIES ON THE FRONTLINES OF SOCIAL CHANGE WORLDWIDE.>>CARNEGIE CORPORATION OF NEW YORK. SUPPORTING INNOVATIONS IN EDUCATION, DEMOCRATIC ENGAGEMENT, AND THE ADVANCEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY. AT carnegie.org.>>AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS AND INDIVIDUALS.>>THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU. Captioning sponsored by NEWSHOUR PRODUCTIONS, LLC Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH

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