A refutation of the Shia (Eng subs) 1

A refutation of the Shia (Eng subs) 1

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A. the matter of Rasulullah’s s.a.w. lineage. B.the matter of combining salat without justification As promised in the previous seminar the second part of our seminars will consist of refuting the allegations found in the book Peshawar Nights in the author’s introduction it is stated he goes on a journey During his journey, he visits various places around the Indian subcontinent, visitors come to meet him he makes various acquaintances and has meetings with a number of people Later, he gets invited to the city of Peshawar by the Shiite’s there This is how the author presents it While there, a contingency of Sunni scholars in Peshawar who hear about his arrival send a notice of interest to meet with him. Their names are Hafiz Muhammad Rashid, Sheikh Abdusselam and Sayyid Abdul Hay and The author mentions these people as the leading scholars of the Sunni ulama there. As for who these people really are, what there level of knowledge is As the debate progresses, we will be able to form an opinion and get an idea in this regard This debate goes on for a few nights and present at that setting are Indian journalists who have the ability to write fast they swiftly document everything that was said each night and the following day they print it in the newspapers. They continued doing this every night until the debate concluded Later on, these printed texts in the newspapers are reviewed by the author, which then get printed in book form and goes through a number of print runs from what we are able to gather from the introduction, various parts of the book is then reviewed The author states that everything that occurred and was said throughout the debate was not reflected in the book as a matter of fact, I’ll quote what the author says in the translated edition “Despite the care and effort shown by the editors and printing house, unfortunately, after the book was printed, various errors were found. These errors were rectified as much as possible” In a later paragraph we are warned by the author about inappropriate statements which occurred during the debate and made its way into the book . These were taken out while various other additions were made. Therefore… the text we have in front of us regarding the debate, (if this debate ever occurred), does not contain the text of the debate verbatim It has been scrutinized and inspected various
times by the author certain parts were taken out and various additions were made by the author and many print runs have come about in this fashion to which we will from time to time as opportunities present themselves, expose what changes and additions the author carried out by comparing the translated version with the original Arabic version So we will attempt to uncover the additions and subtractions the author has carried out When the debate starts the Sunni scholars have a request They propose the use of only the Quran as a source of reference because when it comes to narrations, the issue of relativity comes into play you consider various narrations sahih, for us they’re not, or for us various narrations are sahih but not so for you You prefer so and so narration, but we prefer so and so narration, hence, the matter falls into an impasse. Instead of falling into this quandary, let’s solely use the Quran However, the author objects to this “what you propose is unacceptable” says the author “narrations for us are extremely important, they are also important in understanding the Quran, therefore we cannot cast aside the narrations” says the author “Then in that case, let us limit ourselves to Sahih narrations” say the Sunni scholars. “Ok, we are for that” says the author The debate begins after these conditions have been agreed upon At the start of the debate the author mentions he’s a descendant of the ahlu bayt in response, the Sunni scholars ask that he outline his lineage which the author does of course, the authenticity of his lineage and whether he’s actually from the ahlu bayt requires a separate investigation Nonetheless, the portrait that has been drawn for us is that he’s convinced the Sunni scholars he is a descendant of the Ahlu Bayt This time, the Sunnis respond from a different angle and say… “you claim you are a descendant of Rasulullah s.a.w the lineage that we know is carried on by the male son but you are able to only take your lineage up to our mother Fatima r.anha who is a lady the lineage cannot continue via her, consequently, your lineage descending from Rasulullah s.a.w is questionable At this juncture something takes our attention. As we progress through various topics, we will witness this with almost all of them the people presented as Sunni scholars have seriously weak arguments as a matter of fact, from time to time, various arguments are put forth which no sane person with minimal studies in Islam have ever put forward. One of those is this Everyone knows that Rasulullah’s s.a.w. lineage continued via our mother Fatima r.anha there isn’t anyone who is questioning this matter Within the Ahlus Sunnah there are a significant number of sayyid’s and sharif’s (descendant’s of Rasulullah s.a.w.) They are shown respect and acceptance within the Ahlus Sunnah and everyone knows their lineage comes from our mother Fatima r.anha Thus, a Sunni scholar objecting to the fact that the lineage has continued via Fatima r.anha cannot be comprehended in fact, when the author responds to the objections of the Sunni scholars after quoting various references from his own sources he also quotes references from Sunni sources to bolster his rebuttal such as Razi and other scholars in order to show that Rasulullah’s s.a.w. lineage continuing via Fatima r.anha doesn’t contradict the quran, our rational thought and there are many verses and other evidences which support this Subsequently, what we have here is a portrayal of the Sunni scholars lacking knowledge regarding their own sources who are being annihilated we can detect an effort to ascribe inferiority to the Sunni scholars Why would the Sunni scholars object to this anyway? Within the Sunni world, this is a matter which has generally been accepted and agreed upon With the discussion on lineage completed at the end of the first session A break is taken for salat isha The Sunni scholars say they’ll go to the masjid, pray and return but it is said to them” by the time you go to the masjid and return, the debate will wane. Plus, time is of the essence “Instead, we will make space for you to do your salat here. Complete your salaat then return” they complete their salat and come back during the break, the host of the debate who is a local from the area Nawwab Abdul Qayyim Khan is his name, who says… “If it’s alright with you, while the men are drinking their tea, I would like to ask you a question outside of the topic in discussion” “sure, go ahead” says the author “My question is very short. For a long time now I’ve wanted to ask knowledgeable Shiite’s but never had the opportunity but now that I have this opportunity I would like to ask the following question” “Why do Shiites, in opposition to Rasulullah’s s.a.w sunnah, combine salat zuhur/asr and maghreb/isha?” in response the author says “At the outset let me say this” “the scholars in the gathering also know that there are many disagreements in relation to SECONDARY RULINGS, hence, many disagreements also exist among the 4 main Sunni madhap’s” he then goes on “the ibadah (way of salat ) of the Shiite’s not conforming to the Sunnah has been incorrectly passed down to you” “because Rasulullah s.a.w. would sometimes combine salaat, and sometimes do salat individually within its specified time” In response to this, Nawwab turns to the Sunni scholars and asks.. “I wonder if Rasulullah s.a.w. used to sometimes combine salat and sometimes pray within its period?” The spokesperson representing the Sunni scholars whose name is Hafiz says.. “In order to make it less bothersome for the ummah, Rasulullah s.a.w.combined salaat only during travel, rain and other times of hardship but when he wasn’t travelling, he would always do salaat individually within its period” “I believe Kiblah Sahib” at the gathering, they addressed the Shiite author as ‘Kiblah Sahib’ “I believe Kiblah Sahib erred by confusing safar (journey) with hazar (not travelling)” so Hafiz is saying the Shiite author erred and confused combining salat while travelling with being in a state of muqeem (one who is not travelling) in the translated version, the author is addressed as ‘the inviter’ in response the author says “No, I haven’t erred and have certainty in this matter. In fact, within your own sources, Rasulullah .s.a.w. has combined salat while in a state of muqeem and without being in any hardship” Hafiz responds by saying… “I believe you have mixed up Shiite sources with Sunni sources” the author responds by saying “the Shiite narrations are in consensus regarding the matter of combining salat” “The problem is with your sources. Many sound narrations are found within your Sahih and other reputable books which contain chapters on combining salat” Hafiz responds by saying “if it’s possible, please provide references” The author responds by saying “”Muslim bin Hajjaj in his own Sahih, within the chapter of al Jam bayna salat fil hazar after conveying the narrators in the chain of transmission, he relates the following from Ibn Abbas r.anhu “Rasulullah s.a.w. would combine zuhur and asr, maghreb and isha without being in a state of fear and while not travelling Ibn Abbas r.anhu also narrates “Together with Rasulullah s.a.w, I prayed 8 rakaat’s for zuhur and asr combined, and 7 rakaat’s for maghreb and isha combined.” Rasulullah s.a.w. while residing in Madinah and not travelling, prayed 8 and 7 rakaat’s meaning zuhur/asr and maghreb/isha were combined. After relating a detailed account of similar narrations from Sunni sources, the author says… “another great scholar of yours, al Zurqani in the 1st volume of his book, Sharh al-Muwatta al-Malik under the chapter al jam bayna salat (The combining of prayers) via the path of Al-Nasai, Amr bin Hiram and Abu Shakhsa narrates the following… Ibn Abbas r.anhu……” the author then narrates the same hadith narrated by Ibn Abbas which we just mentioned. The author continues “there have been many narrations under this chapter, but stronger evidence regarding the validity of combining salat are the chapters under the title “Al jam bayna salat” (The combining of prayers) hadith regarding the combining of prayers, specifically compiled under these chapters provides absolute proof that combining prayers continuously is permissible if this wasn’t so, then ‘Combining prayers while muqeem’ and ‘Combining prayers while travelling’ would have required their own chapters”. What we are able to gather from the author up to this point is… when Rasulullah s.a.w was residing in Medinah and muqeem, without any hardship, rain, travel and being in a state of fear did salat zuhur and asr combined, maghreb and isha combined. This wasn’t a one-off situation but rather took place many times, hence, the matter is illustrated by the author where Rasulullah s.a.w sometimes did salat within each designated time and sometimes combined them. This is the general contention of the author Let us immediately say the following. Within our sources there is a narration where Rasulullah s.a.w while residing in Medinah, combined salat zuhur with asr and maghreb with isha It can be found in Imam Malik’s Muwatta, Muslim’s Sahih, just about all of Kutub al Sittah, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal’s Musnad and the narration comes via Abdullah ibn Abbas r.anhu the narration says when Rasulullah s.a.w was in Medinah without being in a state of fear or while travelling combined salat zuhur with asr and maghreb with isha There aren’t any other narrations that has come to us via other sahaba who has related to us that Rasulullah s.a.w, while residing in Medinah,combined zuhur with asr and maghreb with isha, either often or rarely As a matter of fact, in our sources, beginning with Ali r.a., there isn’t a narration that has come to us via the Ahlu Bayt. In Shiite sources a narration similar to Abdullah ibn Abbas’ coming via the path of Ali r.anhu does not exist Consequently, the expectation here is, if Rasulullah s.a.w. did in fact from time to time do salat individually at its designated time and from time to time combined his salat in Medinah then this matter would have been narrated by a significant number of sahaba starting with Ali r.anhu rather than solely coming down to us via Abdullah ibn Abbas r.anhu The fact that this narration has only come via Ibn Abbas r.anhu is questionable The narration is sound Imam Tirmidhi in his Sunan near the end of his Sunan, it is mentioned within Kitaabul ‘Ilal (chapter on hidden defects in hadith) that.. “ALL of the hadiths that are in this book (Sunan) have been utilized and put into practice by the ulama (scholars), with the exception of two hadiths” the first one is this hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Abbas r.anhu, and the second one is.. the hadith regarding the punishment given to the one who consumes alcohol If he drinks it the first time, flog him, if he drinks it a second time flog him, if he drinks it a third time flog him and if he drinks it a fourth time, kill him the ulama did not utilize and put into practice these two hadith consequently, let’s not attempt to draw the following conclusion: the Ahlus Sunnah scholars did not utilize and put into practice sahih hadith found within their sources Why didn’t they put it into practice? At this juncture, whether we like it or not, we are reminded of Imam al Karkhi’s statement “The Quranic verses which are deemed to conflict with our madhap’s view (fatwa) has been interpreted (ta’weel) away the hadith which are in conflict with our madhap’s view are either interpreted away or classified as mansukh (abrogated) People who don’t know why this was said, what the background behind it is and are unaware of its meaning and concept could easily be led to believe, that the Hanafi madhap is such a madhap where it first constructs, puts forth and
cements its own fatwa and ijtihad later when various Quranic verses and hadith are deemed to be in conflict with their fatwa, they reject them Instead, they either abandon them, interpret them away, or classify them as mansukh (abrogated) etc. Consequently, what really matters is the fatwa of the madhap If we look at this matter from this perspective, it is inescapable to draw this conclusion. Well did the Hanafi scholars really do this? Did they take their own personal opinon to be conclusive and interpret conflicting verses and hadith away or classify them as mansukh (abrogated) etc.? No, it’s not like that When the Hanafi scholars gave their fatwa’s they relied on various verses and hadith the matter on hand is not about the Hanafi fatwa’s clashing with various verses and hadith. rather, it is about the verses and hadith’s the Hanafi’s have based their fatwa’s on clashing with other verses and hadith. This is the real issue. Therefore, the Hanafi scholars have based, utilized and put into practice various verses and hadith verses and hadith which clash with these have been interpreted away This is what every madhap does in actuality One of the main reason why madhap’s differentiated and embraced different fatwa’s when faced with various Nass (legal injuctions) is precisely this Every Imam of a madhap according to their own methodology (usool) grounds and bases their fatwa’s on various nass (legal injuctions) and the nass (legal injunctions ) which conflict with them are either interpreted away, designated as mansukh (abrogated) or will ascribe the general to the specific etc. Therefore, the issue here is not about bringing personal opinions to the center and abandoning nass (legal injunctions) the real issue is about nass (legal injunctions) which conflict with each other. This is what the matter here is about. Regarding the matter of Rasulullah s.a.w. sometimes or often combining the salat, the Ahlus Sunnah scholars haven’t discovered sufficient background information behind the narration relating to this matter. Whereas the Shiite’s conclude Rasulullah s.a.w sometimes combined the salat and sometimes didn’t At the bare minimum, they argue Rasulullah s.a.w.combined his salat as often as doing salat individually within its period. We are not in possession of a narration which makes it possible for us to reach the same conclusion Consequently, presenting the matter this way is not correct “The Ahlus Sunnah scholars took their own opinions as their base and abandoned or interpreted a practice of Rasulullah s.a.w. even though it has been narrated with a sound chain As such, many explanations have been put forth regarding this hadith by Sunni scholars Some of these explanations are reasonable, some of them are unreasonable The explanations regarding this specific hadeeth are found in our Hadith Commentary books For example, some have said it’s mansukh (abrogated) others have said it could’ve been overcast and Rasulullah s.a.w might have been hampered in calculating the time for zuhur and asr whereby he prayed them close to each other. Similar explanations to these which are amiss do exist However, Allah knows best, but the most satisfactory explanation in this matter has been provided by the Hanafi scholars They say, Rasulullah s.a.w. whether he’s travelling or muqeem He (s.a.w.) did not combine salat unconditionally The narrations mentioning the combining of salat in actual fact describes Rasulullah s.a.w. delaying salat till it’s almost time for the next salat, whereby He (s.a.w.) completes the delayed salat, then directly proceeds to the next salat. In other words Rasulullah s.a.w. would delay salat zuhur till there’s 5 or 10 mins left for salat Asr to enter, then pray zuhur once zuhur is completed, Rasulullah s.a.w then directly proceeded to pray salat Asr which means zuhur was completed near the end of its period and asr at the beginning When this is viewed from the outside, it seems like salat has been combined. We call this ‘the appearance of combined salat’ It appears as though salat has been combined but in actual fact, each salat has been prayed within its specific period This explanation given by the Hanafi scholars is the most satisfactory regarding this matter Outside of the Hanafi’s, there have been scholars who, for example have said in this narration, Ibn Abbas r.anhu specifically mentions WITHOUT BEING IN A STATE OF FEAR OR TRAVELLING it’s possible that there could have been some other hardship or justification besides these. What could it have been? for example it could have been heavy rain There could’ve been heavy rain and the roads might have been muddy. It would have been burdensome for those who lived a fair distance from Masjid al-Nabawi In a situation like this, it’s possible Rasulullah s.a.w combined salat But, a question asked to Ibn Abbas r.anhu regarding this narration invalidates these types of explanations because Ibn Abbas r.anhu is asked “I wonder why Rasulullah s.a.w did this (combine salat) Did Rasulullah s.a.w. intend to ease the burden for the ummah?” Yes, Ibn Abbas replied, Rasulullah s.a.w intended to not make it burdensome for the ummah Therefore, explaining this incident with rain, travelling etc… There is another narration regarding this incident where rain is mentioned which has been determined as weak It is narrated with the wording “min ghayri khawfen wela matar” (without being in a state of fear or rain) the common version is “min ghayri khawfen wela safar” (without being in a state of fear or travelling) but it has also come with “matar” (rain) Therefore, these explanations do not seem satisfactory Ibn Abbas r.anhu narrated this to Abu Shakhsa and the man who narrated this from him asked about this matter He asked Abu Shakhsa “I wonder if Ibn Abbas r.anhu when he mentions COMBINED did he intend it to mean…..” and he says the same things along the line of the Hanafi scholars in other words, there is the ‘appearance of salat being combined’; Zuhur is delayed near the end of its period, Asr is prayed at the beginning “is this what happened” Abu Shakhsa is asked. He replied “I believe that to be the case” This man is the one who has narrated it from Ibn Abbas r.anhu Therefore, from our perspective, he is the one in the best position to determine what was intended by Ibn Abbas r.anhu By bringing forth these types of narrations, which we will come across frequently as we progress, there are constant accusations hurled at the Ahlus Sunnah scholars “You don’t even know what’s in your own Sunni sources” “you don’t utilize and act upon your own narrations even if they are sound” “Therefore, either go and study your own sources or retreat from delving into these types of matters” and other types of veiled accusations But let us say this this is not a matter which is specific solely to the Ahlus Sunnah scholars the existence of narrations which clash with each other, which seem like they contradict one another and the matter of how to resolve this issue is not a matter limited to the Ahlus Sunnah shcolars It also exists within Shiite sources The Imaamiyyah Shiite’s (twelver’s) have four main, foundational sources which are called Usool al-Arba’ah One of these is Shiekh Tusi’s book al-Istibsar. Of the four books, two of them are by Sheikh Tusi which are Tahdhib al-Ahkam and al-Istibsar al-Istibsar was written after Tahdhib al-Ahkam, why was it written? when the narrations which clashed with each other in Tahdhib al-Ahkam and the matter of figuring a way out of these contradictory narrations became a dilemma, Sheikh Tusi felt the need to write al-Istibsar to clear this up In other words, within the Shia hadith corpus, there exists hadith which clash and contradict with each other, hence, this issue is not specific to the Ahlus Sunnah For example directly related to our topic in discussion (combining salat) I will quote a passage from al-Istibsar Let me give you the volume and page number as well, al-Istibsar, volume 1, pages 139, 140 and onwards He relates a narration providing his own chain of transmission attributed to Imam Jafar who (allegedly) said: “Whoever does salat outside of its specific period, that persons salat is invalid” This is Imam Jafar’s statement which completely uproots the Shiite attitude and approach of combining salat “Whoever does salat outside of its specific period, that persons salat is invalid” Now in relation to this statement, Sheikh Tusi asks “How are we supposed to understand this statement?” “He is referring to doing salat once its period has passed” doing salat once its period has passed will not invalidate his salat, it simply means that person has made up his missed salat But as for salat done before the specific time has entered, then this is invalid whether that person is a traveller or muqeem Sheik Tusi is interpreting this statement by telling us that the salat of the person completed past its specific period will not be invalidated as it means the missed salat is made up but if salat is prayed before the specific time has entered then that is impermissible whether that person is muqeem or a traveller. There you go now this narration does not give any credence to the narrations which the Shiite’s base their views for combining salat to bring those narrations into agreement with this statement either requires ‘overstretched’ and exaggerated interpretations and explanations or we are going to say “You Imamiyyah’s (Twelver Shiite’s) are not utilizing and acting upon narrations found in your own sources Look this is Imam Jafar’s statement and this is Sheikh Tusi’s interpretation you abandoned these and grounded your views on other narrations” Another narration via Abdullah ibn Sinan’s path of transmission attributed to Imam Jafar again Imam Jafar’s epithet is Ebu Abdillah because his oldest son’s name is Abdullah al Aftah “Every salat has two times The time at the beginning of each salat is the best as mentioned previously, there are two times for salat of which the beginning is the best. There’s also the time salat ends “No one has the authority to designate the actual time of salat near the end of its period This is only permitted if there is a valid excuse. For someone who is in hardship Otherwise, no one has the authority to give a fatwa which fixes the time of salat near the end of its period and allow one to habitually delay their salat near the end of its period”, says Imam Jafar as-Sadiq rahimeullah And again another narration from Imam Jafar “Jibreel (peace be upon him) commanded all of the salat to Rasulullah s.a.w. for each salat, two times were designated. In other words a border was marked for the beginning and ending times of salat. Except for salat Maghreb For salat Maghreb, only one time was designated Now if we take the literal meaning of this narration, praying maghreb within the period of salat Isha is impermissible. it should not be done according to the Imamiyyah’s (Twelver Shiite’s) as well Because they combine their salat by bringing it forward (praying isha within maghreb time) and delaying it (praying maghreb within isha time ) But when viewed from this perspective, praying maghreb inside the period of isha is impermissible, at least according to the literal meaning of this narration We can bring forth many more narrations, there is no need to go on with this but, what we can gather from all of this is… if the matter is about utilizing and putting into practice various narrations by taking their literal meaning then we are forced to say that the Shiite’s are in conflict, and act in contrary to their own sources There’s one more point. Let us say for example they grounded their views based on other narrations, and one way or another, they interpreted these narrations away and determined that combining salat was the general practice of the Ahlu Bayt. Let us assume this was the case Imam Zeyd’s (rahimeullah) Musnad is in our hands. As you all know, he is the brother of Muhammad Bakir Imam Zayd relates the following in his Musnad Imam Zeyd’s father is Imam Ali Zayn al-Abidin and his grandfather is Hussein r.anhu. This is the chain of narration. it was narrated on the authority of zayd ibn al-Ali, on the authority of his father, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ali (may Allah honour his face): Ali r.anhu is narrating from Rasulullah s.a.w. “Rasulullah s.a.w. said” “After me, various rulers are going to come into power. Similar to how a persons body dies, they will kill salat. if you reach this period and live under these rulers, do your salat on time within its specific period because these rulers will delay their salat and want to see you in the masjid as well, you pray your salat alone within its specific time first, then go to the masjid and pray with them too. Your second salat with them will be accepted as voluntary prayers to forgo your salat… Just to remind you that the chain of transmission is Imam Zayd’s own lineage going all the way to Ali r.anhu who is narrating from Rasulullah s.a.w. The narration continues as follows Rasulullah s.a.w. goes on to say “To forgo salat within its designated time and pray outside of it is kufr” Consequently, this is a narration from the ahlu bayt where the chain of narrators are from the ahlu bayt and it’s a narration which completely uproots the practice of combining salat which the Imamiyyah’s (Twelver Shiite’s) do. As a matter of fact calls it kufr What should we do now? Should we say that all Shiite’s are kaafir’s due to combining salaat when muqeem and without there being any hardship? No let’s not do that. What should we do instead? Let’s just interpret this narration away. This is what the matter is about. It’s about interpreting narrations. Don’t simplify the issue by slapping it in the face of the Ahlus Sunnah like its something shameful Every…like I mentioned previously, every narration which conflicts with another is resolved by adopting one as your base and interpreting the other away. One narration is put into practice, the other is interpreted away narrations which conflict and contradict each other is unavoidable and inescapable. This is the reality. This issue has its own separate branch of study within the field of hadith This field of study is known as Mushkil al Athar, Ikhtilaf al Athar or Mukhtelif al hadith which specifically deals with this matter Every scholar who is qualified and competent with Ijtihad has their own approach and methodology regarding the matter of Mukhteliful Hadith For example, it’s possible to see differences between the Hanafi’s and Ahlul Hadeeth scholars when they are faced with contradicting narrations, the Hanafi’s say: If the two narrations are equal in soundness and clarity which can’t be brought into agreement with each other, in an attempt to resolve the clash we will firstly scrutinize whether the relation of naskh (abrogation) exists between the two Which narration came first? Which narration came second? Subsequently, the initial route taken to resolve the contradiction is to embrace the principle of naskh (abrogation) The Ahlul Hadeeth say “no we won’t do that” We will first assess to see if it’s possible to bring them into agreement and put both into practice If that’s not possible, then we will look for a way to prefer one over the other If that isn’t possible either, then we’ll embrace the principle of naskh (abrogation) If that also doesn’t resolve the issue, (this also applies to the Hanafi’s), the fourth step is to remain silent or cease attempting to put these narrations into practice. To embrace the attitude of cessation If attempting to put the narrations into agreement with each other, applying the principle of naskh (abrogation) and preference of one over the other doesn’t resolve the issue, then the scholar says “until Allah s.w.t reveals the resolution of this matter, I’m keeping quiet and ceasing to give a fatwa regarding these narrations” This is the situation in front of us, therefore trying to depict the matter as a handicap of the Ahlus Sunnah maybe those people who are made to speak on behalf of the Ahlu Sunnah in that fantasized setting might have been convinced within that imagined debate but the reality is not like this So, we will progress topic by topic brothers the following week we will look at two different matters or more if time permits Allah willing. We will progress topic by topic from the beginning of the book till the end. For now, I’m ending this episode here

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